하다 (hada) is an extremely important verb to know. If you know it, you can add it to nouns to make them into verbs. You can change 하다 (hada) so that those nouns that you changed to verbs can also become adjectives. It just takes knowing how to manipulate 하다 (hada) which means “to do.” Here is a verb that is built using 하다 (hada). If you learn all these different forms of “hada,” you can use them on the end of several other verbs.
말 (mal) means “word” or “language.”
말 하다 (mal hada) is the basic form that means “to speak, talk, or say.”
말하기 (mal hagee) = to speak, to say, to talk, and sometimes: speaking (noun), saying (noun), or talking (noun).
말하는 (mal hanun) is the adjective form of the verb 말 하다 (mal hada) meaning “talking, speaking, or saying” as an adjective.
This grammar, the relative clause, is not in Korean: “The man who is speaking.” However, they can say it. They take 말 하다 (mal hada) and change it into the adjective form: 말하는 (mal hanun, and then, they put the noun for man: 말하는 남자 (mal hanun namja) = the speaking man.
If you want to tell someone to speak or talk, say: 말 하세요 (mal haseyo). That (seyo) on the end turns this into the request form. In essence, 말 하세요 (mal haseyo) means “please speak.” If you know the person very well, like a buddy you hang out with, you can say: 말 해 (mal hey) which is a very informal “please speak.”
If you want to turn 말 하다 (mal hada) into a noun, in English, we would say “speaking, talking, or saying.” It is the gerund form, a noun that can be used as a subject or an object in a sentence. In Korean, this is: 말하는 것 (mal hanun geot). That 것 (geot) on the end means “thing,” and so you have made a noun.
If you want to make 말 하다 (mal hada) in the “yo” form, the polite speaking form you can use with most people, the whole 하다 (hada) part changes except the “h”: 말 해요 (mal heyo) which means “speak, speaks, talk, talks, say, or says.” If you want to make it more respectful, like if you are talking to your grandmother, your professor, or your boss: say “habnida.”
If you want to make 말 하다 (mal hada) into simple past tense, write: 말 했다 (mal hettdah), and if you want it in the “yo” form, 말 했어요 (malhesseoyo). If you want to be respectful, say: “mal hettsubneeda.”
If you want to make future tense for 말 하다 (mal hada), there are two ways I know of: 말 할거예요 (mal halgeoyeyo) and “mal halgeosheetta.” Both of these mean “will speak, say, or talk.”
If you want to use present tense continuous, write: 말 하고 있다 (mal hago eettdah) or say: 말 하고 있어요 (mal hago eesseoyo) or “mal hago ettsubnida.” All of these mean “is, am, or are speaking, talking, or saying.”
If you want to use past tense continuous, write: 말 하고 있었다 (mal hago eesseottda) or say: 말 하고 있었어요 (mal hago esseosseoyo). All of these mean: “was or were speaking,” “was or were talking,” or “was or were saying.”
If you want to make simple past tense, write: 말 했다 (mal hettda) or say: 말 했어요 (mal hesseoyo). If you want to be more respectful, say: “mal hettsubnida.” All of these man “said,” “talked,” or “spoke.”
If you want to use present perfect tense, the tense that begins in the past and ends right now, write: 말 한적이 있다 (mal han jeokee eettda) or say: 말 한적이 있어요 (mal han jeokee esseoyo), and if you want to be more respectful, say: “mal han jeoki ittsubnida.” All of these mean: has or have spoken, has or have talked, or has or have said.
If you want to use past perfect tense, the tense that begins in the past, continued a while, and then finished in the past, write: 말 하돈적이 있다 (mal hadonjeoki ittda) or say: 말 하돈적이 있어에요 (mal hadon jeoki isseoyo). Both of these mean “had spoken, had said, or had talked.”
If you want to say “if,” with 말 하다 (mal hada), say: 말 하면 (mal hamyeon) which means “if (noun or pronoun) speak, speaks, say, says, talk, or talks” That 면 (myeon) means “if.” You can leave the subject out if you want and let them guess from context who it is tha is speaking, talking, or saying something. If you want to use a subject, just put it before 말 하면 (mal hamyeon) and put a subject marker after it. If you want to conjugate the verb, you may, but they don’t always do it even if we would in English. 말 했으면 (mal hesseomyeon) means “if (subject) spoke, said, or talked.” You have to put the 으 (u) between 했 (hess) and 면 (myeon) because two consonants can’t come right after the other. They need a vowel between then, so when that happens, they add: 으 (u) between the two consonants. If you want to say, “if (subject) will speak,” say: 말 할거면 (mal halgeomyeon).
If you want to say: “when” with 말 하다 (mal hada), say: 말할 때 (mal haldde). That 때 (dde) means “when,” so it means “when (subject) speak, speaks, say, says, talk, or talks.” If you want to say it in past tense, say: “malhessuldde.” If you try to put this through the online translator, they don’t know it because Koreans may or may not use it according to the person speaking. They may conjugate the verb or just use it in simple present tense for all the tenses. In all of these, if I didn’t use hangul to write a Korean word, it is because I know more than the online translator, and it can’t give me everything in hangul, and I can’t get the Korean keyboard to work on this computer.
말하자 (malhaja) means “let’s speak, talk, or say.”
말하고 싶어요 (mal hago shipeoyo) = want or wants to talk, speak, or say
말할 수 있다 (mal hal soo eettda) or 말할 수 있습니다 (mal hal soo eettsubnida) or 말할 수 있어요 (mal hal soo eesseoyo) all mean: can talk, speak, or say.
말해야한다 (mal heyahanda) = must speak or have or has to speak, say, or talk
There are more forms than these, but these are some really basic forms. All of these are done with a 하다 (hada) verb. If you learn these forms of the 하다 (hada) verb, you can conjugate all kinds of verbs with this information. Here is a liste of verb that all you have to do is learn the conjugations for 하다 (hada), and you can conjugate every one of these verbs:
대답 (dedab) = answer (a noun), 대답 하다 (dedab hada) = answer or answers (a verb)
공부 (kongboo) = a study (a noun), 공부 하다 (kongboo hada) = study or studies (a verb)
요리사 (yoreesa) = a cook (noun), 요리 하다 (yoree hada) = cook, cooks (a verb)
기도 (keedo) = a prayer (noun), 기도하다 (keedo hada) = pray, prays (a verb)
게임 (geh-eem) = a game (noun). 게임 하다 (geh-eem hada) = to play a game (not used for sports or when children play)
노래 (noreh) = a song (noun). 노래 하다 (noreh hada) = sing, sings (a verb)
일 (eel) = work (a noun). 일하다 (eel hada) = work, works (a verb)
시작 (sheejak) = the start (noun). 시작 하다 (sheejak hada) = start, stars, begin, begins (a verb)
This is just to hlep you understand and get your started on 하다 (hada) verbs. I want yoou to see that you can conjugate a lot of verbs if you just learn what to do with 하다 (hada). Just learn a few of the endings. Next time, I will begin giving you exercises with 하다 (hada) verbs. If you learn this, you have jumped over a big hurdle. Learning this can make Korean easier to learn.