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Basic Spanish, Lesson 9, A Little Vocabulary, Nouns (Un Poquito de Vocabulario, Sustantivos)

Last time, I taught you how to say, “¿Que es esto/?”(What is this?) This time, I thought I might give you lots of different answers to this question, give you the nouns you need to tell someone what it is. We did a few nouns already, if you remember: la casa (the house), una casa (a house), el libro (the book), un libro (a book), el boligrafo (the pen), un boligrafo (a pen), la pluma (the pen), una pluma (a pen),el lapicero (the pencil), un lapicero (a pencil) el lapiz (pencil), un lapiz (a pencil) and el edificio (the building), unj edifico (a buildng). Let’s add to your vocabularies. For each, there is a question, and several ways it can be answered. Take notice of the change in the articles and demonstrative adjectives because they also change according to the noun. You can think of the noun as the “head word” or the boss of the sentence, and everything else follows the lead of the noun.

Picture 1: ¿Que es esto? (What s this?) Es un mano. (It is a hand.) /Es el mano. (It is the hand.)/ Hay un mano. (There is a hand.)

Picture 2: ¿Qué son éstos? (What are these?) Son manos. (They are hands.) /Son los manos. (They are the hands.) /Son unos manos (They are some hands.)/ Son dos manos. (They are two hands.)/ Hay dos manos. (There are two hands.)

Picture 1: ¿Que es ‘esta? (What is this?) Es una puerta. (It is a door.)/ Es la puerta (It is the door.) / Hay una puerta. (There is a door.)

Picture 2:¿Qué son éstas? (What are these:) Son puertas. (They are doors,)/Son unas puertas. (They are some doors.)/ Son las puertas. (The are the doors.) /Son muchas puertas. (They are many doors.)/ Hay muchas puertas. (There are many doors.)

Picture 1) ¿Que es esto? (What is this?) Es un vestido. (It is a dress.)/ Es el vestido. (It is the dress.) Hay un vestido. (There is a dress.)

Picture 2: ¿Qué son éstos? (What are these?) Son vestidos. (They are dresses.) /Son unos vestidos. (They are some dresses.)/ Son Los vestidos. (They are the dresses.) / Hay algunos vestidos. (There are some dresses.) Hay algo de ropa. (There are some clothes.)/ Hay muchos vestidos. (There are many dresses.)

Picture 1: ¿Que es ‘esta? (What s ths?) Es una ventana. (It is a window.)/ Es la ventana. (It is the window.) Hay una ventana. (There is a window.)

Picture 2: ¿Qué son éstas? (What are these?) Son ventanas. (They are wndows.)/ Son unas ventanas. (They are some windows.)/ Son dos ventanas.(They are two windows.)/ Son algunas ventanas. (They are some windows.)/ Hay algunas ventanas. (There are some windows.) /Hay dos ventanas. (There are two windows.)

Picture 3: ¿Qué son éstas? (What are these?) Son ventanas. (They are windows.) Son unas ventanas. (They are some windows.)/ Son algunas ventanas. (They are some windows.) / Hay algunas ventanas. (There are some windows.)/ Hay muchas ventanas. (There are many windows.)/ Hay cuatro ventanas. (There are four windows.)

Picture 1: ¿Que es ‘esta? ( What is this?) Es una silla. (It is a chair.) Es la silla. (It is the chair.) Hay una silla. (There is a chair.)

Picture 2: ¿Qué son éstas? (What are these?) Son sillas. (They are chairs.) Son dos sillas. (They are two chairs.)/ Son unas sillas. (They are some chairs.)/ Son algunas sillas. (They are some chairs.) /Hay algunas sillas. (There are some chairs.) /Hay dos sillas. (There are two chairs.)

Picture 3: ¿Qué son éstas? (What are these?) Son sillas. (They are chairs.)/ Son muchas sillas. (They are many chairs.) /Son unas sillas. (They are some chairs.)/ Son las sillas. (They are the chairs.)/ Hay muchas sillas. (There are many chairs.)/ Hay sillas. (There are chairs.) /Hay algunas sillas. (There are some chairs.)/ Hay unas sillas. (There are some chairs.)

Picture 1: ¿Que es ‘esta? (What is this?) Es una mesa. (It is a table.)/ Es la mesa. (It is the table.)/ Hay una mesa. (There is a table)

Picture 2: ¿Qué son éstas? (What are these?) Son mesas. (They are tables.)/ Son las mesas. (They are the tables.)/ Son unas mesas. (They are some tables.) Son algunas mesas. (They are some tables.) Hay mesas. (There are tables.) /Hay unas mesas. (There are some tables.) /Hay algunas mesas. (There are some tables.) Hay muchas mesas. (There are many tables.)

Picture 1: ¿Que es esto? (what is this?) Es un ojo. (It is an eye.) Es el ojo. (It is the eye.)/ Hay un ojo. (Ther is a eye.)

Picture 2: ¿Qué son éstos? (What are these?) Son ojos. (They are eyes.)/ Son dos ojos. (They are two eyes.)/ Son unos ojos. (They are some eyes.)/ Son algunos ojos. (They are some eyes.)/ Son los ojos. (They are the eyes.)

Picture 3: ¿Qué son éstos? (What are these?) ¿Son ojos? (Are they eyes?)/ Estos no son ojos. (These are not eyes.)/ No hay ojos. (There are no eyes.) No puedo ver los ojos. (I can’t see the eyes.)

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If you want to learn to speak Spanish, the very best way is to write it. I learned that about language a long time ago. You find something to copy, and you copy it and copy it and copy it. You say it out loud as you are copying, and it gets in your head. You are seeing it, you are hearing it, you are saying it, and you are writing it. It is going into your head for ways if you copy what you see and say it out loud. You will remember if you copy something enough like this. If you copy it and say it out loud while you are copying it, after a while it will automatically come out of your mouth, and when you hear it, you will automatically understand it. After you copy it a lot and get it into your head, you can try making up your own sentences because you will have the sentence pattern and grammar memorized.

Remember some rules of pronunciation: “ll” is pronounced like a “y.” “J” is pronounced like an “h.” “H” has no pronunciation. That means that “hay” (there is or there are) is pronounced: (ay). Pay attention to accent marks and put an emphasis on the word where the accent mark is. There is a big difference between ‘esta (this) and esta’ (is). Remember, the “v” is not just a straight English “v” sound. The “v” and the “b” in Spanish are both like a combination of “b” and “v” together. It may feel strange when you start trying to say it, but even if you can’t get it right, you need to remember this because you will misunderstand them if you don’t know this rule. Remember that the “r” is trilled or rolled. Practice the “r” because that is where most students have problems. It takes many people several weeks before they can get it. Pretend like you are reall cold and say: “Brrrrrr!” or Try to purr like a cat: “prrrrr,.” Remember what you did when you were a child and played cars, and make the car engine noise: “brrrrrr!” Eventually, you will get it.

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