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Kanji, Hanmoon, and Hanzi, Part 7, 感じ(かんじ)(kanji), 한문 (hanmoon), and Chinese characters used in China

We have talked about 象形文字 (shokei moji), what the Japanese call the pictorial kanji (感じ(かんじ)), and presented a few. We have also talked about 指示文字 (shiji moji), what the Japanese call indicative kanji (感じ(かんじ)), the characters that represent abstract notions, and I presented a few. Now, we are going to talk about 会い文字 (kaimoji), compound ideographic kanji (感じ(かんじ)).

The first character I want to talk about is: 林. This means “woods.” This is a combination of two of another character: 木. 木 means “tree.” In Japanese, it is pronounced: “き(ki).” In Korean, it is pronounced: 나무 (nahmoo). In traditional Chinese, it is pronounced: ki. To make it the woods instead of just one tree, you make two trees: 林. In Japanese, this is pronounced: はやし (hayashi). In Korean, this is pronounced: 숲 (soop). In Chinese, there is more to this hanzi: 樹 to the word for “tree” pronounced: shu, and they don’t use just two 木, but they use this: 樹木 for “woods.” You can see part of the first one is also the character for “tree.”

これは林です(kore wa hayashi desu.) = These are woods. = 이것은 숲 이예요. (eegeosun soop eeyeyo) =這些是樹林 ( Zhèxiē shì shùlín)

Japanese: 林 = woods. In Japanese hiragana, this is: はやし (hayashi).

Korean: 林 = woods. In Korean hangul, this is: 숲 (soop).

Chinese: 樹木 = woods. In traditional Chinese, this is: shumu.

林の 中に は たくさん の 木が あります。 (hayashi no naka ni wa takusan no ki ga arimasu.) = There are many trees in the woods.

숲에 많은 나무 있어요. (soop eh manun nahmoo eesseoyo) = There are many trees in the woods.

樹林裡有很多樹。(Shùlín lǐ yǒu hěnduō shù.) = There are many trees in the woods.
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In English, we really don't make a difference between "woods" and "forest."  However, with the characters, they do.  They consider a forest to be larger than the woods, so there are two different characters: 林 and 森.  The second one means "forest." In Japanese, this is pronounced: もり (mori).  In Korean,it is like English, and this is still pronounced: 숲 (soop). And, in traditional Chinese, 森林 which means "forest" is pronounced: senlin.  


これは 森 です。(kore wa mori desu.) =This is the forest. = 이것은 숲 이예요. (eegeosun soop eeyeyo) = 這是森林 (Zhè shì sēnlín)

Japanese: 森 = forest. In Japanese hiragana, this is: もり (mori).

Korean: 森 = forest. In Korean hangul, this is: 숲 (soop). Since there is no difference between this meaning for “forest” and “woods” in Korean, but they think of the forest as being larger than the woods, I understand why the scholars in Korea feel that it is important to know these characters and use them when they are studying the Bible or other old literature. They make a deeper meaning than just the hangul.

Chinese: 森林 = forest. It is interesting that the Chinese really make a big difference in how big they think the forest is. The pronunciation of this character is: sēnlín.

森は林よりも大きいです、(mori wa hayashi yori mo ookii desu.) = A forest is larger than woods.

큰 숲이 작은 숲보다 더 켜요 (kun soop ee jakun soop boda deo kyeoyo) = A forest is larger than woods.

森林比樹林大 (Sēnlín bǐ shùlín dà) = A forest is larger than woods. (Do you remember the character: 比 from when we were studying just kanji and hanmoon? It means "compare." Hopefully, you remember the character 大 which means "big" or "large." If you remember both of those characters, then you can understand completely what this Chinese hanzi is saying.)
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You already know from this blog if not from the series on kanji and hanmoon, that  木 means "tree."  It is pronounced: き (ki) in Japanese, 나무 (nahmoo) in Korean, and in traditional Chinese, it is pronounced: ki.  There is another character that we studied before: 人. This one means "person."  In Japanese, the two pronunciations are: ひと (hito) and じん (jin).  In Korean, this is pronounced: 사람 (sahrahm) or 인 (een).  In traditional Chinese, this is pronounced: ren.  If you put both of these characters together, they look like this: 休. This is supposed to be a person resting against a tree, and the meaning is: rest. This is used as a verb.  In Japanese, this is 休む(やすむ)(yasumu) or 休みます(やすみます)(yasumimasu).  In Korean, this is: 쉬다 (sweedah) or 쉬어요 (swee-eoyo).  In traditional Chinese, this is has a bit more to it:休息, and it is pronounced: Xiūxí. 
彼が 休 みます。( kare ga yasumimasu.) = He rests. = 그는 쉬어요. (kunun swee-eoyo). =他休息 (Tā xiūxí)

Japanese: 休 = rest. To complete this in Japanese since it is a verb, you need some hiragana (ひらがな):休みます (yasumimasu) which means: rest, rests, or will rest. The basic form that you find in the dictionary is 休む(やすむ) (yasumu) which is the infinitive form. If you want to say “He is resting,” say 彼は休んています (kare wa yasunde imasu.) If you want to say, “He rested,” say: 彼は休みました (kare wa yasuminashita.)

Korean: 休 = rest. In Korean hangul ( 한굴), this is 쉬다 (shweedah) in the basic form in the dictionary and on the page. 쉬기 (swee-ghee) is the infinitive form, “to rest.” If you want to say, “He is resting,” say 그는 귀고 있어요 (kunun shweekoh eesseoyo) in polite speech, 그는 쉬고 있다 (kunun shweekoh eettdah) when it is written on the page or in impolite speech or speech used for people very close to you. If you want to say, “He will rest,” say 그는 쉴거예요 (kunun shweelkohyeyo). If you want to make it every more polite when you say, “He will rest,” say 쉴거싰다 (shweelgosheetah). If you want to say, “He rested,” say 쉴었어요 (swheeleosseoyo) in polite speaking and 쉴었다 (shweeleottdah) in what you read on the page, if you are talking to someone close to you, or if you are being rude (which I hope you aren’t).

If you want to say, “He has rested,” say: 그는 쉰적이 있어요. (kunun shweenjeokee eesseoyo). If you want to say, “He has not rested, ” say: 그는 쉬적이 없어요 (kunun shweenjeokee eobseoyo). If you want to say, “He had rested,” say: 그는 쉬돈적이 있어요. (kunun shweedonjokee eesseoyo). If you want to say, “He hadn’t rested, say: 그는 쉬돈적이 없어요 (kunun shweedon jeokee eobseoyo). If you want to say, “He doesn’t rest,” say: 그는 쉬지 않아요. (ku nun shweejee ahnahyo). If you want to say “He will not rest,” say: 그는 안 쉴거예요. (ku nun ahn sweelkeoyeyo).

Chinese: 休息 = rest. You can see there is more to this hanzi than to the Japanese hiragana and the Korean hangul. This is pronounced: Xiūxí. 他休息 is pronounced “ta xiuxi,” and it means “he rests.” I won’t conjugate this into several forms because I speak Japanese and Korean, but not Chinese.

疲れたので 休みたい。(tukaretano de yasumitai.) = I want to rest because I am tired.

피곤해서 쉬고 싶어요 (peegon heh-seo shweegoh sheepeoyo) = I want to rest because I am tired.

我想休息,因為我累了 (Wǒ xiǎng xiūxí, yīnwèi wǒ lèile.) = I want to rest because I am tired. 
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