Korean seems to be nebulous sometimes. I learned one future tense, then I played a verb game with my students where they were conjugating verbs in English and I was conjugating them in Korean. When I used the verb tense I had learned, one stopped and said, “Really? Is that future tense?” After she thought about it for a while, she decided I was right. After that, my students taught me a second future tense. I have figured out that one is more formal than the other, but they are both future tenses, and I had initially learned the more formal one, and then they taught me the polite tense everyone uses in regular conversation. I will present them both for you using the verb 간다, “go” along with past progressive tense, present perfect tense, past perfect tense, and other verb forms that either we don’t have a real translation for or are used in other ways. .
Two forms for future tense:
I think I will go to the beach next summer. = 나의 생각이 다음 여름은 내가 해변에 갈가고예요. (nah ooee seng-gakee daum yorum un nehga hehbyeon eh kalkayo.) Shall we go to the beach next summer? = 다음 여름은 해변에 갈가요? (daum yorum un hehbeyon eh kalkayo.)
갈거싰다 (kalgeosheettdah) = will go
갈가예요 (kalgeo yeyo) = will go, or perhaps since this is less formal, but still polite, you might say it is “am, is, or are going to go.” You see, we have two forms in English two.
갈가요 (kalkahyo) = “Shall we go?
가고 있었어요 (kakoh eesseosseoyo) = was or were going.
Maybe I should explain what this is before I tell you what it is. This is a past tense verb, but not simple past tense. Simple past tense happened in the past at one time and is finished. It is the one that take the “ed.” Present perfect began in the past and continued until now. The name of the tense says “present perfect,” which means it is perfect or finished in the present. Here is the verb “go” (간다) in present perfect tense:
I have been to the beach. or I have gone to the beach. = 내가 해변에 간적이있다. (negah hehbeon eh kahnjeokee eettdah.) 내가 해변에 간적이 있어요. (negah hehbeon eh kanjeokee esseoyo). 내가 해변에 간적이있습니다. (negah hehbeon eh kanjeokee eettsubneedah.)
간적이 있다 (kanjeokee eettdah_ = has or have gone, This is the form you will see in books, is used to talk down to people, and is used for close friends close to your age.
간적이 있어요 (kanjeokee esseoyo) = has or have gone. This is the form used in polite conversation. This is the form you want to learn because you can use it with most people. You can use it for both statement and a question.
간적이 있습니다 (kanjeokee eettsubneedah) = has or have gone. This is the formal form used for strangers, for announcements, and for talking to people who are above your station in society.
간적이 있습니가 (kanjeokee eettsubneeka) = “has or have (subject) gone?” This is the question form for 간적이 있습니다.
Past Perfect Tense:
This is another past tense verb. The difference between this and simple past tense is that simple past tense happened at one time and is finished. This one happened over a period of time in the past, and it finished in the past, unlike Present Perfect. Past Perfect Tense is perfect or complete in the past, and it happened over a period of time. Here are the examples:
가던적이 있다 (kahdeonjeokee eettdah) = had gone or had been there. This is the form used in books, used for talking down to someone, and used for close friends close to your age.
가던적이 있어요 (kahdeonjeokee eesseoyo) = had gone or had been there. This is the form you want to learn so you can speak it. It is used in polite conversation with most people. This is used for a question or a statement, just change the tone of your voice.
가던적이 있습니다 (kahdeonjeokee eettsubneedah) = had gone or had been there. This is the formal form used for strangers, for announcements, and for people older or in a higher place in society than you are.
가던적이 있습니가 (kahdeonjeokee eettsubneekah) =” had (subject) gone?” or “had (subject) been there?” This is the question form for 가던적이 있습니다.
We can’t go to the beach because of the corona virus. = 코러나에서 해변에 갈 수 없어겄은요. (koronah ehseo hehbyeon eh kal soo eobseo keottunyo.)
가겄은요 (kahkeottunyo) = “go or goes,” and they are giving you new information, so they add the “근요” at the end.
갔겄은요 (katkeottunyo) = “went,” and they are giving you new information, so they add 근요.
갈겄은요 (kalkeottunyo) =” will go,” and since they are giving you new information, they add 근요.
갈 수 없어것은요 (kal soo eobseo keottunyo) = “can’t go” giving new information.
가자 (kahjah) = let’s go, less formal
갑시다 (kabsheedah) = let’s go, formal
가던적이 있을때 (kahdeonjeokee eessuldeh) = when (subject) had gone or when (subject) had been there. This is a “when clause” and used at the beginning of a sentence, not at the end.
간걱이 있을때 (kahnjeokee eessuldeh) = “when (subject) has or have gone,” or “when (subject) has or have been there.” Again, this is not the main verb of the sentence, so it is not used at the end of the sentence.
간 적이 있기때문에 (kahn jeokee eettghee demooneh) = “because (subject) has or have gone.” This is not used at the end of the sentence, but introduces a sentence.
간적이 있어서 (kahnjeokee eesseoseo) = “because (subject) has or have gone” or “since (subject) has or have gone.” Again, this introduces the sentence and is not used at the end of the sentence.
갈것이기때문에 (kalkeoteeghee demooneh) = “because (subject) will go.” Again, this is used at the beginning of the sentence, and not at the end. These kinds of clauses introduce a sentence rather than are put at the end to explain like in English.
가던적이 있어서 (kadeonjeokee eesseoseo) = because (subject) had been or gone, or since (subject) had been or gone. Again, this introduces a sentence and is not used at the end.
가기때문에 (kahghee ddemooneh) = “because (subject) goes or go.” It is used to introduce a sentence.
갔기때문에 (kattghee ddemooneh) = “because (subject) went.” It is used to introduce a sentence.
갔으면 (kahssumyeon) = “If (subject) went.” This is used to introduce a sentence like in English,
간적이 있으면 (kahnjeokee eessumyeon) = “If (subect) has or have gone” or “If (subject) has or have been there.”
가던걱이 있으면 (kahdeonjeokee eessumyeon) = “If (subject” had gone,” or “If (subject) had been there.”