There are several programs for Foreign Exchange students, and each one is a bit different. When I was a student at the university, there was a program between Oklahoma Christian University in America and Ibaraki Christian University in Japan. I got a scholarship to go and then had to make up the difference of the money for plane tickets and extra expenses to go from Oklahoma Christian University to Ibaraki. While I was in Japan, I lived in a Japanese home, and my Japanese sister wanted to go to America as a student, so she applied to the Rotary Club in Japan and took tests. There was more than one student, and they chose between the students who would get to go to America to study.
When I was in Romania teaching at Lucian Blaga University, there was an exchange program between Lucian Blaga University and Columbia University in America. I was on the committee to chose the students who went, and the ones chosen had scholarships to go. We began by testing the students. We gave them an English essay exam. After that, we interviewed each student wanting to go. Their English had to be good enough that they would not fail in America but be a good representative of Lucian Blaga University. They also had to have the right attitude and be able to present themselves well.
When I was at Korea Christian University, they asked me to set up an exchange program between Lucian Blaga University in Romania and Korea Christian University in Seoul S. Korea. Lucian Blaga University has decided that whenever they have an exchange program, they use the Erasamus Agreement. The Erasamus Agreement is a very detailed set of rules put forward by the European Union for school to have exchange programs. It talks about housing, who will pay for what, how the students will be treated, what kinds of things they will study, etc. You can probably find a copy of the Erasamus Agreement online somewhere.
Also when I was at Korea Christian University, we had an exchange program that I helped them set up between Korea Christian University and Ibaraki Christian University in Japan. A representative from the foreign student office came from Ibaraki Christian University to Korea Christian University, and we sat down with her and hammered out the rules like what the students would study, where they would live, how much it would cost, any scholarships available, etc.
I also helped set up an exchange program between Korea Christian University and Ohio Valley University in West Virginia in America. We also negotiated an agreement for that. The Korean students could go to classes for free at Ohio Valley University, but had to pay for the dorm. I can’t remember the exact responsibilities of the American students. Each one had to pay for their own plane tickets.
We also had a program between Oklahoma Christian University and Korea Christian University. I made the connections for them, but I can’t remember what kind of stipulations they had in their agreement. As you can see, usually, exchange students go under specific program between two schools However, there are organizations like the Rotary Club who also give out scholarships to send students. We had a Japanese high school exchange student with us for a while when I was first married, and we had to go to meetings to learn and qualify to have her. We supplied her with a place to live, sent her to high school, and found her friends her age. She just had to study and take responsibilities on in our home as if she were part of the family. It was fun. It was a long time ago, and I can’t remember which organization it was that sent her to us. I hope this helps you understand exchange programs a bit better.