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Explaining Korean Grammar in Acts 1:9 (사도행존 1장 9절)

We have finished with the introduction to Acts and the thesis sentence. We know that Dr. Luke wrote Acts. He talked to everyone involved and put it down in an orderly manner because pretty amazing things had happened. The book of Acts begins with Jesus after his death, burial, and resurrection. He is giving instructions to the apostles who still don’t quite understand what is happening, but Jesus is trying to explain it all to them. He says he will be sending them a gift from God that will help them. He also says that John the Baptist only asked people to repent when he baptized them, but that in a few days, baptism will change. They will not only be asked to repent and be immersed for the forgiveness of their sins as they have been doing to people, but the people will also receive the gift of the Holy Spirit. The Holy Spirit is not something new. The Holy Spirit has been around from the beginning of time. It was moving over the face of the waters during creation. Mary became pregnant without a man because of the Holy Spirit. If you look in Galatians 5: 22& 23, you will find out what you see when someone receives the gift of the Holy Spirit: “love, joy, patience, kindness, goodness, faithfulness, gentleness, and self control.” People with the Holy Spirit receive an unbelievably wonderful attitude coming from the inside of them, and this is what Jesus is promising. Jesus just keeps teaching his apostles and then we get the thesis sentence.

The thesis sentence is that sentence that tells you what the rest of the book is about: “But you will receive power when the Holy Spirit comes to you, and you will be my witnesses in Jerusalem, and in all of Judea and Samaria, and to the ends of the earth.” Now, we are ready for verse 9.

사도행전 1 장 8 절: 이 말씀을 마치시고 그들이 보는 떼 올려져 가시니 구름이 그를 가리어 보이지 않계 하더라

Jesus had been giving the apostles last instructions. Photo by Magda Ehlers on Pexels.com

이 말씀을 = “This word” or “These words.” 이 (ee) before a noun means “this” or “these.” There is no difference between singular and plural in Korean. 말씀 (mahlssum) means “word” or “words.” 이 (ee), “this” or “these,” is a demonstrative pronoun because it points to something else, and in this case, it points to 밀씀 (mahlssum), “word” or “words.” 말씀 (mahlssum) is the direct object noun. We know that because 을 (ul) is the direct object post position particle. Whatever comes before 을 (ul) is the direct object always.

마치시고 = “like this, and..” 마치 (mahchee) means “like.” 시 (shee) is treating what Jesus said with respect. 고 (goh) means “and.”

그들이 = “They.” 그들 (kudul) means “they.” 이 (ee) after a noun or pronoun is the post position particle that tells you that noun or pronoun is the subject.

They were looking into the clouds as he rose up into the clouds. Photo by Hampton Lamoureux on Pexels.com

보는 떼 = “When looking.” 보다 (bodah) means “to look.” 보는 있다 (bonun eettdah) means “looking” at the end of a sentence, but this is in the middle, so they took the 있다 (eettdah) part off. 떼 (ddeh) means either “when” or “time.”

올려져 = “He rose.” I actually supplied the pronoun. It isn’t in the verb, but the assumed meaning is there because this is talking about Jesus. 올라가기 (ohl-rah-kah-ghee) means “to rise” or “to go up.” 올려져 (ohl-ryah-chyeeo) comes from 올라가기. 올려져 (dhl-ryah-chyeeo) is the past tense form inside of a sentence.

가시니 = “go.” 가 (gah) or (kah) all alone means “go.” 시 (shee) makes this respectful. 니 (nee) is a verb ending.

구름이 = “cloud.” 구름 (koo-rum) means “cloud,” and 이 (ee) means this is another subject.

The things Jesus did were just flat amazing!! Photo by Juhasz Imre on Pexels.com

그를 = “him.” 그 (ku) all alone is a masculine pronoun, but you don’t know if it is “he, him, or his” without the post position particle. The post position particle here is 를 (lul). 를 is the post position particle used after direct objects, so 그 becomes “him” with 를 after it.

가리어 = “went over.” 가 (gah) or (kah) means “go.” 어 (oh) is a verb ending used inside the sentence.

He went into a cloud, and they could no longer see him. Photo by Ruvim on Pexels.com

보이지 않계 하더라 = “didn’t show” or “hid.” 보다 (bodah) means “to see.” 보이다 (bo-ee-dah) means “to show.” In this case, the 다 is replaced by 지 (jee). 지 tells us that a negative is coming. 않계 (ahn-gye) is that negative. 하더라 (hah- doh- rah) comes from 하다 (hah-dah) which means “to do.” This combines with 가리어 is the main verb of the sentence because it is the last word of the sentence.

Let’s put this verse all together: “After he spoke like this, when they were looking, he left rising up into the cloud hiding him from them. “

The grammar in this was so strange that it was hard to be completely true to what was being said and not end up with a convoluted sentence in English. However, we got the message: After Jesus spoke to them giving them instructions to go everywhere and teach everyone and telling them the Holy Spirit would help them, Jesus rose up into the clouds, and the couldn’t see him anymore. What a shocking thing that would have been to happen! Can you imagine being one of Jesus’ apostles and trying to figure him out all the time? Our minds are so limited compared to his! Our abilities are so limited compared to his! They must have been in awe. There is a good reason these guys turned the world upside down with the teachings of Jesus! After seeing the things they saw, there is no way they couldn’t have been completely convinced of who he was.

We will see him again someday in the clouds. Photo by Andre Moura on Pexels.com

Jesus predicted over in Matthew 24:30, Jesus says when he comes again, he will come in the clouds, and everyone will see him. Can you imagine how confused the apostles were when he said that? I know he kept them confused a lot, but they had a great privilege, to actually hang out with Jesus on this earth. There are people who actually wonder if all these things actually happened. They think they are only written in the Bible, but they aren’t. The historian Josephus talks about Jesus doing miracles and rising from the dead on the third day. He was not a disciple nor an apostle, merely a Roman/Jewish historian who went around researching the things that happened and writing about them. He didn’t even claim Christianity, but he know what was going on, and was amazed enough to include Jesus in his history book. I have actually read the pages because I used to know someone who had a copy of that history book. If you look online, his history books are for sale. He was a contemporary of the apostles, but was born after Jesus died, buried, rose from the dead, and went back to Heaven.

As we keep reading, we will realize Jesus rose into Heaven from the Mt. of Olives and there were 120 people who saw it happen.

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