Explaining Korean Grammar in Acts 1:8 (사도행장 1절 8 절)

So far, we have been reading the introduction to Acts of the Apostles. We have learned that it was written by Dr. Luke, the man who also wrote the book of Luke. He wrote it to Theophilus, the same person he wrote the book of Luke to. He had decided to study everything out in detail from the beginning and write everything that happened down in an orderly account. He was not a witness to what happened, but he talked to all the witnesses and wrote down what they told him step by step to try to make sense of what had been happening among them. What had been happening among them was completely astounding! Dr. Luke, as an educated man, knew how to lay things out well and thought it was is responsibility to exam it all and put it down so the rest of us could understand what happened. Dr. Luke was a medical doctor. He was looking at what happened with the keen eye of a scientist.

They were all together listening to Jesus after his death, burial, and resurrection. Photo by Pixabay on Pexels.com

The book of Acts opens up after the death, burial, and resurrection of Jesus. Jesus is meeting with his disciples still trying to explain things to them because he plans on going back to his Father in Heaven soon. What he is explaining is so complicated the disciples are still having trouble understanding and taking it all in. They have seen his power, and they are wondering if it is time for him to restore the kingdom of Judah because it was currently occupied by Rome. However, Jesus tells them that God cares about what was happening to them, but when the physical kingdom of Judah will be destroyed is only for God to know, but that he is giving them something much more important. He promises the Holy Spirit which was not something new because the Holy Spirit has been around since the beginning of time, but the Holy Spirit will help them make sense of what is going on. If we look in Galatians 5:22-23, we will understand what happens to us when we have the Holy Spirit better because it says that people will see in us, “love, joy, peace, patience, kindness, goodness, faithfulness, gentleness, and self control.” The Holy Spirit becomes a force for good without motivation beyond treating others well coming from inside of us.

Jesus tells them to stay in Jerusalem. Photo by Haley Black on Pexels.com

Jesus tells his apostles that they must stay in Jerusalem and stay together, and that the Holy Spirit would help them understand. After that, we finally get the thesis sentence to the book of Acts in verse 8 of chapter 1:

사도행전 1장 8절: 오직 성령이 너희에게 임하시면 너희가 권능을 받고 예루사렘관 온 우대와 사마리아와 땅끝 까지 이르러 내 증인이 되리라 하시니라

사도행전 1장 8절 = “Acts of the Apostles 1:8.” 사도 (sah-doh) means “apostle.” 행 (heng) means “act.” 전 (jeon) means “before.” As I have said many times, the Koreans have something that makes things plural: 들 (dul), but very often, they choose to not use it, and it is still considered correct. They didn’t use it here, but “apostle” and “act” still both translate as plural. 장 (jang) means “chapter.” 절 (jeol) means “verse.”

오직 = “only.” Transcribed in English letters, 오직 is “oh-jeek.”

The dove, the symbol of peace, is how the Holy Spirit appeared at Jesus’ baptism in Matthew 3. Photo by Garfield Besa on Pexels.com

성령이 = “The Holy Spirit.” 성령 (seong-ryeong) means “Holy Spirit.” 이 (ee) is the post position particle that tells you that 성령 (Holy Spirit) is the subject. That is why I put “the” in front of “Holy Spirit.”

너희에게 = “to you guys” or “to you all.” Just 너 (noh) alone means “you,” singular. If you put 너희 (noh-hu-ee), it becomes “you” plural, “you guys” or “you all.” 에게 (eh-geh) is the post position particle used after people that means “to.” This “to” can only be used before people.

A special time was coming. Photo by David Bartus on Pexels.com

임하시면 = “When the times comes.” 임하다 (eem-hah-dah) is the basic form, and it means “in the times or years that come.” If you take the 다 (dah) off and put 시 (shee), it becomes respectful. 면 (myeon) means “if” or “when.” I usually use it as “if,” but I know it can be used also as “when” in English.

너희가 = “you guys.” 너희 (noh-hu-ee), as I said before, means “you guys” or “you all.” 가 (gah) is a post position particle meaning that this is another subject.

관능을 = “a feeling.” 관능 (kwan-nung) means a physical feeling. 을 (ul) is the post position particle tells us that 광능 (kwan-nung) is the direct object of the verb.

받고 = “receive, and..” 받 (bahd) comes from 받다 (bahd-dah) which means “to receive.” 고 (goh) is one of the ways to say “and” inside a sentence. It is used on the end of a verb.

예루사렘과 = “Jerusalem and..” 예루사렘 (yeroosahlem) means “Jerusalem.” 과 (koh-ah) is another way to say “and” inside of a sentence.

Jesus knowns they will want to teach more than Jerusalem.. Photo by Toa Heftiba Şinca on Pexels.com

온 유대와 = “all Judah and..” 온 (ohn) means “all.” 유대 (yoo-deh) means “Judah.” 와 (oh-ah) is another way to say “and.” 과 (koh-ah) and 와 (oh-ah) are different forms of the same “and.” 과 (koh-ah) was used after “Jerusalem” because it ends in a consonant. 와 (oh-ah) is used after “Judah” because in Korean, 유대 (yoo-deh) ends with a vowel: 애 (eh).

사마리아와 = “Samaria and..” 사마리아 (sah-mah-ree-ah) means “Samaria.” Again, 와 (oh-ah) means “and.”

When the Holy Spirit makes them understand, they will be teaching the whole world. Photo by Pixabay on Pexels.com

땅끝까지 – “until the ends of the earth.” 땅 (ddahng) means “earth” or “land.” 끝 (kut) means “end.” 까지 (ghah-jee) means “until.” In Korean, this is one prepositional phrase, but in English, we have to make ti two prepositional phrases.

이르러 내 증인이 = “tell my being.” 이르러 (ee-ru-reo) means “tell.” 내 (neh) means “my.” 증인 (jung-een) means “being.” 이 (ee) is the post position particle that can either mean that this is another subject or that something will become this, and the next word “되” (doh-ee) means “become,” so it means that 되 (doh-ee), become< and 증인 (jung-een), being, go together.”

되리라 = “will become” This is part of the main verb of the sentence, and the main verb seems to have two parts. 되 (doh-ee), as I said above, means “become.” When the 리라 (ree-rah) is added to 되 (doh-ee) it is future tense, a form used only in books, and part of a sentence, so don’t worry about learning this ending unless you plan on reading a lot of Korean Bible. In normal conversation, 될거예요 (doh-eel-keo-yeh-yoh) is the future tense form to use at the end of the sentence. Either that or 될겠습니다 (doh-eel-ket-sub-nee-dah) when a respectful form is called for.

하시니라 = “will do.” 하다 (hah-dah) is the basic form of “do.” The 다 (dah) is removed and 시 (shee) is added to make it respectful. 니라 (nee-rah) is an ending that is only used in the Bible, and it is a future tense form. This is the other half of 되리라 (doh-ree-rah), will become. If you want a conversational way to say 하시니라 (hah-shee-nee-rah), say 할거예요 (hahl-koh-yeh-yo). Remember, since this and 되리라 (doh-ree-rah) are the main verb, in English, this will be toward the beginning of the sentence after the subject.

The Holy Spirit will help the apostles finally understand the urgency of Jesus’ message and give them enough love to give their lives for others. Photo by Vidal Balielo Jr. on Pexels.com

Let’s put this verse all together: “When the Holy Spirit will come only to you guys, you will received a feeling, and you guys will tell of my being in Jerusalem and all Judah and Samaria and until the ends of the earth.”

There we have it. Have you ever read the book of Acts? Something really interesting happens to the apostles in chapter 2 of Acts, and that is what this is talking about when Jesus talks about the apostles receiving a feeling. The Holy Spirit gives us a good feeling inside that cares about other people, and the apostles will receive that. They will finally understand what Jesus has been talking about and truly care about other people the way he does. Because of that feeling, the rest of the book of Acts happens. The apostles establish the first church in Acts 2, and they go throughout the earth teaching people about Jesus. The missionary journeys are recorded in the book of Acts.

The apostles were beaten with whips. They were killed, and Peter was even crucified upside down. Photo by Alem Sánchez on Pexels.com

If you read church history further, the apostles were really amazing! They never gave up. They went into all kinds of heathen countries and taught, even at the threat of death. All but one was killed for their faith. No one dies for a lie, and the apostles let people kill them because they understood the urgency of their message and cared so much. They had the Holy Spirit given to them by Christ, the gift he talked about in the introduction to Acts. The apostles turned the world upside down with their teaching. They changed the world because the understanding the Holy Spirit gave them.

We aren’t finished. Chapter 2 hasn’t even begun yet, but the waiting time has come for the apostles. They will be waiting for the Holy Spirit that Jesus promised them, and at this time, Jesus is still with them physically.

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