Now, I am going to continue explaining the Korean grammar in the Christmas story from Matthew. Until this point in the story, Mary came up pregnant, and Joseph was beside himself. He knew he wasn’t the father, but he was engaged to Mary. If he broke up with her, she could have been stoned to death, so he knew he needed to break up with her in secret to protect her. He went to sleep worried. While he was asleep, an angel of the Lord came to him and told him to go ahead and marry Mary because the child in her was from the Holy Spirit. The angel explained to Joseph that the baby would be a boy, that he should call the baby “Jesus,” and that when Jesus was grown, he would save the people from his sins. When he woke up, he listened and did what he was told. Now, we are ready for verse 22 of Mathew the first chapter.
마태복음 1:22 – “이모든 일어 된 것은 주께서 선지자로 하신 말씀 이루려 하심이니 이르시된
마태복음 – “The Gospel of Matthew.” 마태 (Mahtay) is how you say “Matthew.” 복음 (bokum) is how you say “gospel.”
이모든 일어 된 것은 – “All these things were taking place.” 이 (ee) means “this” or “these.” There is not way to make it plural or singular in Korean. It is all just one work. The placement tells you it is not the post position particle that signifies a subject because it is the first word in the sentence. 모든 (modun) means all or everything. 일어 된 것 (eel-eo- dween kot) needs to be kept together, but to explain it, I will separate it out in pieces. 일오나다 (eel-oh-nah-dah) means “to happen.” 되다 (doh-ee-dah) means “to become” or just “to be,” but in an adjective form and conjugating the verb to be in a past tense. 것 (kot) means “thing” or “things.” As I have said before, even if there is a way to express it as plural, usually the Koreans just ignore the singular and the plural and express it all the same way. If you put 일어, 된, and 곳 together, it ends up becoming “things that are becoming” or “things taking place” or “things happening.” 은 (un) is the post position particle that tells you that 이 모든 일어 된 is a subject clause.
주께서 선지자로 – “from the Lord, through the prophet.” 주 (joo) means “Lord.” 께서 (geh-soh) is a post position particle meaning “from.” 선지자 (sohn-jeejah) means “prophet.” 로 (roh) means “through” or “using.”
하신 밀씀 이루려 – “done in order to accomplish the word.” 하신 (hah-sheen) comes from 하다 (hah-dah) which means “to do” or “to be.” The 다 (dah) has been removed and replaced by 신 (sheen) which makes 하신 a respectful form of 하다 that is a past participle used as an adjective. 말씀 (mahl-sum) means “the word.” If you remember, 말하다 (mahl-hah-dah) is the word for “to speak,” and 말 (mahl) means “word” or “language.” 이루 (ee-roo) comes from 이루다 (ee-roo-dah) which means “to accomplish.” 려 (ryeo) means “in order to.”
하심이니 – ” doing it since.” Again, 하 comes from 하다 (hah-dah) which means “to do” or “to be.” 심 (sheem) is used to make this respectful speech again, and it changes 하다 into 하심, so it is a noun. 이니 (ee-nee) means “since.”
이르시된 – “has been said.” 이르 (ee-roo) comes from 이르다 (ee-roo-dah) which means “to say.” 시 (shee) makes this respectful. 된 (do-een) means “to become” or “to be.” This is the last verb of the sentence, and it connected to 하심이니.
Let’s put this all together: “All these things were taking place since the Lord has said this through the prophet in order to accomplish his word.”
Here are some post position particles used here:
1) 께서 = from or since, which makes it a preposition, so it will come after a noun.
2) 로 = using or through which makes it a preposition, so it will come after a noun.
3) 려 = in order to…This comes after a verb.
4) 은 is used after the subject, after time, and after adjectives. It is used after a word that ends with a consonant. Its counterpart is 는 it is used the same way, but used after a vowel. If you want only a subject post position particle, you have to go to 이 or 가.
5) 이니 = since..This comes after a verb.