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Explaining Korean Grammar Using the Love Chapter, Part 11

I decided to go slowly through the Korean grammar in the chapter because it is not easy grammar. I am explaining just one verse at a time. Hopefully, people are remembering from blog to blog what the chapter is about and what kind of grammar we have discussed. However, I try to give a short review to keep you updated.

서러 사랑 하새요. (Love one another. 사랑이 하나님에서 왔어요. (Love comes from God.))Photo by Kristina Paukshtite on Pexels.com

If you remember, in chapter 12, the people had been arguing over who had the better spiritual gift, and the Apostle Paul said at the end of chapter 12 that he was going to show them a better way which happens to be love. The Apostle Paul gets so skillful with his letter that it sounds like poetry. He uses imagery and hyperbole. He then begins to tell them the way people who love one another should act. Even though this works for romantic love too, it is not merely confined to romantic love. It is basically, how we should treat one another if we are Christians. He, no doubt, will stop the fighting. We learned some important words in Korean in all this: 천사 = angel, 사랑 = love, 빙언 = dialect, 사 람 = man (a general word), 말 = word or language, 인내 = patience, 기쁨 = Joy, 진실 = truth, 친절 = kindness, 이기 적인 = selfish, 하다 = do, which can also be put on the end of a noun to make it a verb. 해요= do or does, and comes from 하다. 말 하다 = to speak, 면 = if, 며 = and, in a book, 하고 = and, at the end of a verb. 알다 = to know, 알아요 = know, knows, 끝 = end, and that is what is going to happen to all these miraculous gifts they are arguing about. 예언 = prophet, and 예언 하다 = to prophecy, 언제 = when, for a question. 때 = when, for a when clause.

Okay, that is enough review. It says all these miraculous gifts will be gone when love comes. Love is what is perfect. 완벽 = perfection, 완벽 한 = .perfect as an adjective, 완벽 하다 = to be perfect, as a verb. Now let’s go on to verse 11.

내가 어렸을때 (When I was a child)Photo by Pixabay on Pexels.com

Verse 11:내가 어렸을 때에는 말하는 것이 어린 아이와 같고 깨닫는 것이어린 아이와 같고 생각하는 것이 어린 아이와 같다가 장성한 사람이 되어서는 어린 아이의 일을 버렸노라.

내가 – “I.” 내 means the first person pronoun which could me “I,” or “me,” but because 가 is after it, it makes it “I” because 가 is the post position article or particle for the subject.

내가 어렸을때 – “When I was a child.” 때 means “When.” “Child” is 어린. That 어린 has been changed to 어렸 because they have added the verb 이예요 in it and made it past tense. When you see ㅆ, which is called double shee-ot, on the bottom of a syllable, it is a past tense verb. That 을 is put after 어렸 because 어렸 ends with a consonant ( ㅆ) and 때 comes next. If the double shee-ot wasn’t there, and in fact, if there were no letter on the bottom, that ㄹ would not be with 을, but would be added to the bottom of the word before 때.

말하는 것이 – “talking” or “speaking.” 말 means “word” or “language.” If you put 하다 on the end of 말, it becomes “to speak,” or “to talk.” To make 말하다 into an adjective, write 말한. to make 말하다 into a noun, write 말하는 것. 것 means “thing.” It is a gerund. A gerund is a word that looking like a verb, but isn’t. It is a noun. In English, our gerunds that means 말하를 것 are “talking” or “speaking.” That 이 on the end tells you this is a subject. It must be 이 and not 가 because ㅅ is a consonant. If the word ended in a vowel, you would use 가.

어린 아이와같고 – “like a little child, and.” 어린 means “young.” 아이 means “child.” 와 is a kind of connecter. Often 와 means “and,” but it only connects 아이 and 같 here. It isn’t translated as “and” here. 같 means “like” or “as.” 고 is another way of saying “and” inside a sentence.

깨닫는 것 – “the realization.” 깨닫 하다 means “to realize.” It has that 것 on the end that makes it a noun, but 깨닫 is not a verb, so 깨닫는 것 can’t be another gerund, so doesn’t have “ing” on the end.

어린 아이와같고 생각 하는 것이 – “Thinking like a small child.” Again, 어린 means “young,” and 아이 means “child.” Like before, 와같 means “like” or “as” after the connector 와. 고 means “and.” 생각 means “thought.” 생가 하다 means “to think.” 것 means “thing.” The 다 was taken of the . 하다 and 는 was added, and then 것, and that makes this a gerund again, so it makes 생각 하는 것 to mean “thinking.” That 이 and the end tells you that you have another subject.

어린 아이와같다가 – “like a little child.” The 다가 is another ending. From my best estimation, I would say it means “do, but.”

장소 한 사람이 됬어요. (He became a man.)Photo by LinkedIn Sales Navigator on Pexels.com

장성 한 사람이 – “an adult.” 장성 한 is an adjective meaning “great” or “large.” 사람 means “person.” The 이 after 사람 is there because 되 comes next. Always use 이 as the post position particle before 되.

되어서 -” because I became.” 되 comes from 되다 which means “to become.” 되 is just a form used inside the sentence. 어서 means either “because” or “since.”

어린 아이의 일을 – “childish things.” Again, 어린 means “young,” and 아이 means “child.” After 아이 this time, we have 의. 의 can be thought of as apostrophe “s,” or it can make a noun into an adjective. In this case, it has done basically both. 일 means “thing” among other things. Again, in Korean, even though they have a post position particle that means the same as our “s” to make something plural, they hardly use it, and it wasn’t used here. 을 means that 어린 아이의 일 is the direct object meaning that it receives the direct action of the verb. If you ask, “What?,” the answer is “린 아 이의 을,” childish things.

쓰레기를 버리 세요 (Please throw away the trash.)Photo by Steve Johnson on Pexels.com

버렸노라 – “threw away.” If you throw away trash in Korean, you use the verb, “버리다” which means “to throw away.” If I were going to say, “I threw it away,” I would say, “버렸어요.” However, this is a different level of speech for the same verb, but you are only going to see it conjugated 버렸조라 in the Bible, so learn 버렸어요 to speak to people. This is the main verb of the sentence because it is the last word of the sentence.

바을은 교회가 자라기를 원해요. (Paul wants the church to grow up.) 서러 사랑 하세요. ( Love one another.) 완전한 사람이 돼세요. (Pease become a perfect person.)Photo by samer daboul on Pexels.com

Let’s put this all together: “When I was a child, I did talking, realization, and thinking like a small child, but because I became an adult, I threw away childish things.”

It seems the apostle Paul is trying to explain to them that these miraculous gifts they are prizing more than harmony between them, are childish (어긴 아이의), and they need to throw them away (버리다) (because they are imperfect. They need to learn to think like adult (장성 한 사람) Christians and learn to love(사랑) one another. Remember, when that which is perfect (완전한) comes, that which is in part (부분) will end (끝을거예요). Love(사랑) is perfect (완겅한). An adult (장성한 사람) is fully grown, and in essence, perfect (완전한). The child(어린 아이) is “partial” (부분). He is using the allegory (a kind of story with a comparison) of childhood and adulthood to try to explain to these people what he is talking about. When they grow up as Christians, they will learn how to love one another and be able to actually form a church and stop arguing by throwing away the idea of miraculous gifts or who has the best spiritual gift because the last verse of this chapter says love (사랑) is the best spiritual gift.

Okay, there you have verse 11 of 1 Corinthians 13, the love chapter. 아직 안 끝알거예요. (I haven’t finished yet.) 완전한 장을 할거예요. (I will do the whole chapter.)

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