Explaining Korean Grammar Using the Love Chapter, Part 8

I seem to be going through this chapter really slowly. To begin with, I know Korean isn’t easy for any native speaker of English. After that, we are still without internet in our home. My daughter called AT&T this morning to check on it because they told her they would be contacting her and hadn’t, and the guy didn’t know the status, so he promised to check on the status and get back to her. It makes it difficult to blog without internet in my home. I hope all it takes is patience, and we will get it. Do you know the words for “hope” (소망) and “patience” (인내) in Korean yet? If you remember, in previous blogs about this chapter, I suggested you learn words like that which appear in this chapter because they are people’s names in Korea. I can’t give you a complete review here of everything we have talked about in this series that talks about Korean grammar in the love chapter, so let’s just go on and try to add to the other blogs in this series now.

사랑이 믿어요 (Love trusts).Photo by Kristina Paukshtite on Pexels.com

The last verse we did was verse 7: 모든 것은 참으며 모든것을 믿어여 모든 것을 바라여 모든것을 견디느니라. Remember: 모 든 = all, 것 = thing or things, and 은 is the subject marker. 참다 = to put up with, 믿다 = to believe or trust, 바라= wish, 견디느다 = to endure. 여 = “and” inside the sentence. 을 = direct object marker. 라 = the end of a verb at the end of a sentence, and it is a level that is coming from way above the person they are talking to. 으 is after some of the words because a consonant must be followed by a vowel. To put a verb in the middle of a sentence, you must take the ending off, and to put a verb at the end of the sentence, you need to give it an ending. The 다 puts a verb in the basic form, so I use the English infinitive form (the form with “to” before it that you find in the dictionary) as its equivalent. The 다 is taken off every verb in this verse because inside the sentence, you don’t use it, and at the end of the sentence, the 다 is replaced to show the level of speech. Now, let’s go on to verse 8 of 1 Corinthians 13, the love chapter.

Verse 8: 사랑은 언제까지나 떨어지지아니하되 예연도 폐하고 방언도 그치고 지식도 폐하리라.

사랑은 언제까지나 떨어지지아니하되 -” Love never fails.” 사랑 means “love.” Again, 은 is the subject marker. 언제 means “when.” 까지 means “until.” 나 is another post position particle. 언제까지나 all together means ” until whenever.” 떨어지다 means “to fall.” The next 지 tells you a negative is coming. You have to take that final 다 off of 덜업지다 and add 지 before you can give the verb a negative. 아니 means “no” or “doesn’t.” 하되 technically means ” 하다 되다” (to do..to become). However, put together the way they are, they become “but.” This means we have “Love, until whenever, doesn’t fall, but..,” and to put it in less convoluted English, I put “Love never fails.”

서경에 예연은 두루마리에 섰어요. (In the Bible, the prophecies were written on scrolls.)Photo by Henry & Co. on Pexels.com

예연 도 – “prophecies also..” 예연 is one of the words they use for prophecy, a noun. The Korean word is not plural, but Koreans often leave the plural out even if it is supposed to be plural. You are supposed to guess from context whether it is plural or singular. 도 can mean either “and” or “also.”

폐 하고- “waste and..” 폐 is the Korean word for “lungs.” However, with 하다 after 폐, 패하다 means “to waste,” so prophecies will waste away. 하고 is another way to say “and” on the end of verb. If you are using a 하다 verb inside the sentence and want to say “and” after it, you just take that 다 off and add 고, and it becomes “and.”

방안이 아직있어요. 하지만 이 방안이 기적적인 방언 이었어요.(Dialects still exist, but these dialects were miraculous dialects.) (Act 2:7&8) (1 Corinthians 12:28)기적적인 방언이 폘거예요. (Its over, finished) (그치다) (Miraculous dialects will end.)Photo by Pixabay on Pexels.com

방언 도 – “dialects also..” 방언 is the word for dialects, and as I said before 도 means either “and” or “also.” This is connecting this to 예연 (prophecies) because 예연 also has 도 after it.

그치 고 – “It is over, and…” 그치 means “it’s over.” 고 is another way to say “and” inside of the sentence.

미안 해요. 지그은 우리는 공부 해야한다 (Sorry, now we have to study.)Photo by meo on Pexels.com

지식 도 – “knowledge also..” 지식 means “knowledge.” Again, 도 can mean “also” or “and.”

폐하리라 – “Will waste away.” 페 means “waste.” 하리라 is a future tense verb ending that you will probably only see in the Bible. That 라 on the end means that this is being spoken from a very high level to a low level. If you want the level that you can use everyday for future tense with this, you can say, “폘거예요.” This also means “will waste away,” but it is a more common levels of speech. Since this verb is conjugated like this, it means this is the end of the sentence.

성경을 공부 해요. (He studies the Bible.)Photo by Oladimeji Ajegbile on Pexels.com

Here are some more conjugated verbs:

하다 (to do) – 할거예요 (will do), 해요 (do, does), 했어요 (did)

배우다 (to learn) – 배울거예요 (will learn). 배워요 (learn, learns), 배웠어요 (learned)

사랑 하다 (to love) – 사랑 할거예요 (will love), 사랑 해요 (love, loves), 사랑했어요 (loved)

믿다 ( to believe, to trust) – 믿을거예요 ( to believe, to trust), 믿어요 (believe, believes), 믿 었 어요 ( believed)

가르지다 (to teach) – 가르질거예요 (will teach), 가르져요 ( teach, teaches), 가르짔어요 (taught)

공부 하다 (to study) – 공부 할거예요. (will study), 공부 해요 (study, studies). 고부 했어요 (studied)

폐다 (to waste, to waste away) – 폘거예요 (will waste, will waste away), 폐요 (wastes, wastes away), 폐었어요 ( wasted, wasted away)

예연 하다 (to prophesy) – 예연 할거예요 (will prophesy), 예연 해요 (prophesy, prophesies), 예연 했어요 ( prophesied)

설교 하다 or 전도하다 (to preach) – 설교 할거예요 or 존도 할거예요 (will preach), 솔교해요 or 전도 해요 (preach, preaches), 설교했어요 or 전도 했어요 (preached).

Just remember that for all of these verbs, you don’t have to worry about the person like in English. If you are using the verbs the way I conjugated them, you can use them with almost everyone, and you don’t even have to put a pronoun with them if you don’t want because the Koreans are used to guessing at the pronoun. Just leave that pronoun out.

목자 이예요. (He is a priest.)Photo by Rene Asmussen on Pexels.com

The reason I included both words for “to preach” in Korean and the word for “to prophesy” is because in English, “to prophesey” often means “to preach.” However, the Koreans are really serious about preaching, and they have two words for “prophesy” or “prophet” as well as two words for “preach” or “preacher.”

prophet – 예연, 선지자 (noun)

prophecy – 예연, 예언서 (noun)

prophesy -예언 하다, 예버 하다 (verb)

preacher – 전도사, 설교자, 목사, 목자 As you can see, the Koreans have four words that can be translated as “preacher.” If you are a preacher at the Presbyterian church, Korea’s biggest denomination, you are probably called “목사,” what we call a “pastor” in English. If you are a priest or a minister, you will probably be called “목자.” If you are a member of the church of Christ which I know many of my followers for this blog are, you will call the preacher목자. The other two words are just for people who preach.

missionary – 선교사, 선전자, 사절. I have actually heard 선교사 used the most for “missionary.”

to preach – 설교하다, 전도 하다 (Look back at the word for preacher. They just add 하다 and turn the noun for preacher into a verb meaning “to preach.”

내가 한국에 갔을때 많은 십자가들있어서 나의 감각이 안전했어요.( When I first went to Korea, I felt very safe because there were so many crosses.)기오교는 한국이 강력해요. (Christianity is powerful in Korea.) Photo by Pixabay on Pexels.com

Koreans are serious about their spirituality. You can really tell because we have one word for prophet, one word for missionary, but they have so many words for these kinds of terms. These are just some of the things I heard. When you see a cross on every street corner in Korea, they are not playing. Christianity is very real in Korea. In fact, it is so much a part of the society that one many told me he left the Presbyterian church because it is so big and powerful in Korea that it had become a political machine, and he wanted just plain Christianity. He was right that the Presbyterian church is extremely powerful in Korea. I went to a small island called Imjado off the west coast of Korea to teach an English camp. The camp was in a resort on a beach, and they said the Korean government had given that resort to the Presbyterian church. The largest denomination in Korea is the Presbyterian church. The largest church in the world is a Pentecostal church in Youido, Seoul, S. Korea. I went there to look as a tourist. The building is huge!! They pay their contribution by ATM. They have several auditoriums, and you walk on a sloping hall way all around the outside of the auditoriums. On the bottom floor, they have a room where you can sit and watch services on TV. From what I understand, they have services there 24 hours a day, seven days a week to satisfy everyone. Koreans like to feed people after worship services, so in the hallway, there was a type of cafeteria line set up to feed the worshipers. It is a huge place! Koreans are very serious about their Christianity. My daughter taught at a Christian school located in a building that also had a Christian TV station and a Christian radio station. I taught at a Christian university, and there are several in Seoul from different churches. A friend of mine was a producer at another Christian television station, and he put on concerts all over Korea and even in China. When I went to those concerts, there was a famous television personality who liked to talk about mission projects they were doing all over the world. Koreans are serious about Christianity. If you are a Christian and want to be encouraged, spend some time in Korea.

I am finished with verse 8 of the love chapter. Next time I will go on to verse 9. 안영히가세요 (goodbye, which literally means “go in peace.”).

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