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Understanding Korean Grammar Using the Ten Commandments, Part 6

Okay, here we go again! Let’s work that puzzle called Korean grammar! One of the biggest problems I have had in learning Korean is that I never found a dictionary that actually did a good job. I didn’t study Korean in school. I just read grammar books and tried to sort through things because I didn’t have the time to take a class, and when I finally did have the time, they classes were just so expensive I couldn’t do it. I am lucky, though, because when I had money, but no time, I sent my daughter to Korean language school. She has helped me a lot in learning Korean. When I do these blogs, though, she is usually at work, so I am on my own, and so far, so good. I haven’t found anything that is so challenging I can’t handle it. If I am not sure about something, I ask her when she gets home, and she comes up with the same answer I had. Let’s get started. Today, we will be doing Exodus 20: 11 & 12.

하나님이 하늘 과땅 과바다를 만들었어요. (God made the sky, the earth, and the sea.)//Photo by Pixabay on Pexels.com

Verse 1: 이는 엿새 동안에 나 여호와가 하늘 과 땅과 바다 와 그 가운데 모든 것 을 망들고 일곱째 날에 쉬었음아라 그러므로 나 여호와가 안식일을 복되게 하여 그날을 거룩햐게 하였느니

이는 엿새 동안에 -” for six days.” 이는 actually means “this.” 엿새 means six days. 동안 means “during,” and 에 means “at,” “to,” “in,” or, “on.”

나 = I

여호와가 – “Jehovah” with a subject marker after it, 가. It is renaming 나, “I.” In English, when something is renamed, we call it an apostrophe, and we put commas around it.

하늘 과 땅 과 바다 와 – “the sky and the earth and the sea and.” 하늘 = sky or heaven. 과 = and that comes after a consonant. 땅 = earth, land, or dirt. 바다 = sea. 와 = and, after a vowel.

하나님 이 동물 과 꽂 과 다무를 만들었어요. (God made animals, flowers, and trees.)//Photo by Pixabay on Pexels.com

그 가운데 모든 것을 만들고 – “made everything in them and.” 가운데 = among. 그= he, him, this, or that, and in this case, it means “this.” 모든 = all or every. 것 = thing. 을 is the direct object marker. 만들 = make. 고= and, after a verb.

일곱쩨 날에- “on the seventh day.” 일곱 = seven. 일곱쩨 = seventh. 날= day. 에= at, to, in, or on, and in this case, it is “on.”

하나님이 쉬;었어요. (God rested.)// Photo by Pixabay on Pexels.com

쉬었음이라 – 쉬 = rest, 쉬엇 = rested. 음 makes 쉬었 a noun. 이라 actually makes this al into a verb. It is actually the end of the sentence, but often in Korean, like here, they leave the punctuation out, and you can only tell by grammar where the sentence ends.

Therefore, this sentence would be translated like this: For six days, I, Jehova made the sky, the earth, and the sea with everything in them and rested on the seventh day.

네 부머님를 종경 하세요. (Honor your parents.)//Photo by Vidal Balielo Jr. on Pexels.com

Verse 12: 네 부모를 공겅하라 그리하면 네 하나님 여호와가 네게 준 땅 에서 네 생명이 길리라.

네 부모님를- “your parents,” and 를 tells you this is the direct object. It means “your parents,” 네 부모님, will receive the direct action of the verb. 를 is used and not 을 because ㅁ, m, is a consonant. 네 and 내 have the same pronunciation, but 내 means “my,” and 네 means “your” or “yes.” In this case, you can tell from the context of the sentence it means “your.”

공겅 하라 – “honor,” and it is in the form of a command coming from high above. 하라 comes from 하다, and is like “하!” which means “do!” and is a command form like from a teacher or a parent to a child. 하세요 means “please do.” 공겅 is just one way of saying the noun for “honor,” and 하라, 하다, 하 해, 해요. 히세요. etc.. all different forms of 하다, makes 고겅 into a verb.

그리하면 – “If you do this.” 하 = do. 면 = if. When you want to use “if,” you take the end off the verb, and add 면. 그리 is not used in everyday conversation. and between my daughter and I, we seem to have different points of view of the exact meaning. If you say 그리고, it means “and” at the beginning of a sentence. If you say 그럼로, it means “therefore.” Therefore, 그리 could have either meaning, but the meanings of each are not that far away from the other for it to make a big different in the meaning of the sentence. In English, it says “so” in that place, so there is a good possibility that그리 means “therefore.”

네 하나님 여호외가 – “Your God Jehovah,” and 가 means this is the subject.

네게 준 – “giving to you.” Usually, 에게 means “to” after a person, and 너 means “you.” Here, they have just combined the two words and made 네게, “to you.” The verb for “to give” is 주다. .If you want to make a verb into an adjective, you take that 다 off, and you put an ㄴ at the end of the word, so 즌means “giving.” It is not the main verb of the sentence.

땅 – land, earth, or dirt

에서 – This tells you where something is located, or at times, can mean “from” or “since.” In this case, 땅 에서 means “on the land.” or “on the earth.”

네 생명 – “your life.” Again, 네 means “your,” and 셍명 means “life.”

이 – This is a post position article that is after 생면 (life) telling you that 생면 is the subject.

네 부모님을 종경 하면 많은 년을 살 수 있어요. (If you honor your parents, you can live many years.)//Photo by Tristan Le on Pexels.com

길리라 – “Lengthen.” 길 means “long.,” but just “long” is not a verb, but an adjective. In Korean, they can make adjectives into verbs, and this 길 has been made into a verb by adding 리라, a verb ending. It is language that is only used by someone at the very, very top, like God. If I wanted to say something would be lengthened in everyday language, I would say 길 됄 거예요 which means “will become long” in everyday language, the same meaning of 길리라.

Let’s put this all together: “Honor your parents. If you do this, your God, Jehovah, will give you a long life on the earth.”

두리는 왕들 안어서 펴구의 말 을 말 해야한다. (Since we are not kings, we should use normal speech.)//Photo by Pixabay on Pexels.com

Okay, we successfully made it to the end of two verses written in Korean again. It takes time to sort through Korean, and using the Bible, you run into a lot of language that is not used in everyday speech, so you have to figure out the equivalent of what you know in another level of speech to help you understand it. The think to understand as we go through the Ten Commandments is that it is supposed to be God talking, and no one is above God on the social scale. He is higher than everyone, so he will be using language that can really talk down to people. As you are learning Korean, use the other equivalent that I give you, not the Bible language because you don’t want to insult anyone. It is not insulting to us if God who made us talks down to us, but if we talk to people the way God speaks to the min Korean, they may not like us much because only God is as high as he is. The levels in Korean are very pesky sometimes. Here, you have the grammar explained from Exodus 20: 11 & 12. It is only logical that listening to our parents will help us live longer. Those of you who are parents understand that you want to give your kids good advice. If a child puts their hand out to touch fire, the good parent will say, “no.” The children should understand that the parent is speaking from wisdom learned and love. However, the parents should also know there are more admonitions in the New Testament that encourage parents to use wisdom when they talk to their kids and not be overbearing and turn the kids against them. Kids need to honor their parents, and even Jesus encouraged kids to take care of their parents in their old age. He also says even evil parents know how give their kids good gifts. There is actually a lot more to be said about parents and their children in the Bible than what is right here.

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