So far, I have explained the ichidan and godan verbs in Japanese, given you several very useful verb endings, and explained the irregular verbs Japanese verbs. Now, I want to explain adjectives in Japanese because they can also be conjugated like verbs. If they are used before a noun, some are simple used like they are, but some have endings, and if they are used after a noun, a verb can be connected to them. Since I will be talking about adjectives, I will also explain comparative adjectives, superlative adjective, and relative clauses because relative clauses are used like adjectives. .
Three kinds of adjectives: 1( “na” adjectives 2) “i” adjectives. The way to tell the difference between the “ii” adjectives and the “na” adjectives is if you look them up in the dictionary, the “na” adjectives will have a “na” after them in the dictionary. Also, when these adjectives are written in kanji, the “na” adjectives just have a kanji, and the “i” adjectives have a kanji and an “i.” 3) Adjectives that are actually nouns (colors can come in this category) / You can also use the infinitive form of a verb before a noun to make a verb describe a noun, in essence a relative clause with a gerund. Gerunds look like verbs, but are actually adjectives or nouns. .
Conjugation of “I’ adjectives:
basic adjective and negative adjectives: To make these adjective negative, just take off the final “i”and add “kunai.” If they are not negative, use them just like the are in front of a noun.
oishi= delicicious, oishikunai = not delicious, takai = tall or expensive, takunai = not tall or not expensive. ee= good, yokunai = not good atsui = hot. atsukunai = not hot. samui = cold, samukuna = not cold, atarashi = new, atarashikunai = not new. wakai = young, wakakunai- not young.
“i” adjectives in past tense: Take the “i” off and put “kata” on the end. (The adjective “ii” is a little strange. I have read it is because it was not always pronounced “ii,” and even though it changed, all it’s parts haven’t changed.)
oishi= delicious, oishikata = was delicious. takai = tall or expensive. takakata = was tall, was expensive. ii= good, yokata= was good, samui = cold, samukata= it was cold. atarashi = new, atarashikata= was new,
“if” form of “i” adjectives: Use need the “ba” for “if” again.
takai = expensive or tall. takakerba = if it is expensive. takaikunakereba = if it is not expensive, if he is not tall , oishi = delicious, oishi kereba= if it is delicious. oishikunakereba = if it is not delicious, samui = cold, samukereba= if it is cold, samukunakerea = if it is not cold. wakai = young. wakereba= if (he or she) is young, wakanakerebe = if (we, you) are not young.
“i“i” adjectives used in a sentence: kore wa ii desu. = This is good./ ii kudamono desu. = It is good fruit. yokunai kudamono desu. = it is not good fruit. ii de wa arimasen. = It is not good. yoku de wa arimasen = iIt is not good. oishi desu = It is delicious. oishikuna tabemono desu. = It is not delicious food. oishi tabemono desu. = It is delicious food. kono kata wa wakai desu. = That person is young. wakai kata wa watashi no okaasan desu. = the young person is my mother. wakana onna wa watashi no okaasan desu. = The woman who is not young is my mother. samukerea gakko e ikimasen. = If it is cold, I don’t go to school. oishi kereba takusan tabetai. = If it is delicious, I want to eat a lot. oishikata = it was delicious.
Conjugation of “na” adjectives;
Basic “na” adjectives and negative “na” adjectives: To make these adjective negative, just add “janai.”To use them in front of a noun, add “na.”
suki = like, desireable, sukijanai = not like, not desirable. shinsetstu = kind, shinsetsuna= kind in front of a noun, shinsetsujanai= not kind, kirei – pretty, kireina = pretty in front of a noun, kireijanai = not pretty, genki = healthy, genkina = healthy before a noun, genkijanai = not healthy.
Past tense of “na” adjectives: Just put “kata” on the end.
takata = was tall, was expensive, sukiddata = was desireable, liked, shinsetuna kata = was kind, shinsetsujanai nakata = was not kind, genkinakata – was healthy, kirekinakata = was clean, was pretty
The “if” form of “na” adjectives: The key is “nakereba”
sukina kereba = if you like it, takana kereaba = if it is expensive, if he is tall, shinsetsuna kereba = if he is kind, if you are kind, genkina kereba = if you are healthy, kireina kereba = if it is clean, if she is pretty.
Using “na” adjectives in a sentence: suki desu. = I like it. shinsetsuna onna no ko wa watashi no tomodachi desu. = The kind girl is my friend. kireina uchi wa watashi no uchi desu.=The clean house is my house. genkina otoko no ko wa gakko e ikimashita. = The healthy boy went to school. Watashi wa genki desu. = I am healthy, I am fine. Genkijanai desu. = I am not healthy. I am not fine. genkina kereba gakko e ikimasu. = If you are healthy you go to school. kireina kereba ureshi desu. = If it is clean, I am happy.
Using nouns and verbs as adjectives:
- If you want to change a noun to an adjective and use it before the noun, just put “no” after the noun you want to make into an adjective. Examples: The green book is my book. = midori no hon wa watashi no hon desu. The attendance book is under the desk. shusseki no hon wa tsukue no shita desu. . koshiki no uta wo utaimasho. = Let’s sing the official song.
- If you want to use a verb as an adjective, use the “jibiki no katachi” ( the infinitive or dictionary form.) Here are some examples: The singing man is the happy man. = utau hito wa ureshi hito desu. The walking man is a healthy man. = aruku hito wa genki hito desu.
To compare two things in Japanese, you need a certain sentence order. Here it is:
noun + noun + yori + adjective + verb
In some ways, you can say that “than” = “yori.” “wa” comes after the subject of the sentence. The thing being compared comes before “yori,” but in English after “than,” In English, the adjective is changed and comes before “than,” In Japanese, just use the appropriate adjective and put it after “yori.”
Examples of usage:
This girl is prettier than that girl. = kono onna no ko wa ano onna no ko yori kirei desu. (This = kono(before a noun). that (before a noun) = ano or sono
otoko no ko wa onno no ko yori takai desu. = The boy is taller than the girl.
kono eiga wa kono eiga yori okashii desu. = this movie is funnier than that movie. (eiga- movie) (okashii= funny)
All you need to make it superlative is to put “ichi ban” in front of it. “ichi ban” means “number one.” Here are some examples.
This is the best car. = kono kurma wa ichi ban desu. She is the prettiest girl. = kanojo wa ichi ban kirei desu. This food is the most delicious. = kono tabemono wa ichi ban oishi desu. This is the tallest building. – Kore wa ichi ban takai tatemono desu.
I have already given you some exaples of relaive clauses above. However, I will explain them more here. They don’t have a relative clause like English. They put the adjective before the noun.
Kirei na onna no ko wa watashi no imo-oto desu. = The girl that is pretty is my younger sister.
takai tatemono wa watashi no uchi desu. = The building that is tall is my house.
ookii onaka no hito wa watashi no otoosan desu. = The man who has the big stomach is my dad.
Okay, My Japanese language blogs are finished for now. If you want more or have more questions, please let me know. If you look back through this series, You will know how to conjugate ichidan and godan verbs in a sentence and at the end of a sentence. You will know what to do with the irregular Japanese verbs. You will be able to make conditionals, make relative clauses, make when clauses. use reported speech, know how to use adjectives,s, etc. With just the small amount of information I have given you, you can carry on basic conversations if you look the words that you need up in the dictionary or already have some Japanese vocabulary. Try writing some sentences on your own, and use these as patterns. If you don’t know a word, .look it up in the dictionary. You may have all or at least most of the grammar you need. If you don’t know something, ask me in the comments section, and I will try to help you.