I have explained ichidan and godan verbs in Japanese and their conjugations. I have also explained how to use “suru= to do. Now, it is time to tell you the last irregular verb: kuru = to come. I also want to give you some other things you can do with verbs. In the blog after this, we will talk about adjectives that can become verbs.
kuru = to come
kimasu = come, comes, will come
kimasen = doesn’t come, don’t come, won’t come
kimashita = came
kimasen deshita = didn’t come
kitai = want to come, wants to come
kite imasu – is, am, are coming
kite imashita = was coming
kite kudasai = please come
kinaide kudasai = please don’t come
kuru kotoga dekimasu = can come
kuru kotoba dekimasen= can’t come
kuru kotoba dekimasendeshita = couldn’t come
kina kereba narimasen = I must come, you must come, he has to come, we have to come., etc.
kureba = if you come, if he comes, if we come, etc.
kuru toki ni = when you come, when I come
To use reported speech, you need the verb iu = to say. More helpful verbs are omoimasu = to think, shitumon suru = to ask a question. kotaeru = to answer, henji suru= to answer. To be polite in Japanese, knowing how to use “omaimasu” will come in handy because even if you are right, they would prefer you state it as your opinion. Reported speech merely means you say what someone said or thought. Here are some examples of how to use reported speech:
watashi wa nihongo ga benkyo suru to imasu. = I say, “I study Japanese.”
First, you use the infinitive form of the main verb, and then you put “to” like a quotation mark, and then put imasu.
Kono hito tachi wa kekkon suru to imashita. = They said that they will get married.
Use the inifinitive form of the verb, and then put “to” imashita” for “said that.”
ano hito wa ikatai to imasu.= That person says that he wants to go.
You can use other forms too, but just end it with “to imasu” or “to imashita.”
te wo arau to omoimasu. = I think that I will wash my hands.
kochira to omoimasu. = This way, I think. (Even if you know for sure, it is polite to say, “to omoimasu.”
migi ni magaru to omoimasu. = I think that you turn right.
daijobu desu to kotaerimashita. = It’s okay she answered.
dekita to shistumon shimashita= Did you do it she asked.
Saying Let’s Do Something
If you have Japanese friends, often you want them to do something with you. there are two ways to ask them to do something with you. The most polite way is to put “sho” on the end of a “masu form verb. It isn’t very complicated. Just take the “u” off the end of a “masu” form verb and add “sho.” Here are some examples:
iku = to go, ikimasu = go, goes, will go
ikimasho = let’s go
taberu = to eat, tabemasu = eat, eats, will eat
tabemasho = let’s eat
suru = to do, shimasu= do, does, will do
shimasho= let’s do
If you want to ask someone to do something, just put a “ka” on the end: ikimashoka? = shall we go?
Now, you have the explanations of how to conjugate the ichidan, the godan, and the irregular verbs in Japanese. I have given you lots of useful forms. There is one more thing that we need to discuss with respect to verbs in Japanese. It is what to do with adjectives because they can turn into verbs. I haven’t given you every conjugation in Japanese, but mostly just the polite ones and the ones I gave you that are not so polite you need to build inside the sentence. There are other verb forms beside these, but these are the most useful for saying what you want to say. When I learned to speak Japanese, one of the most useful things I learned was to adapt to another way of thinking. Many English speakers study French or Spanish in school. We might think it is hard, but the word order isn’t that complicated for us. If we want to find a verb conjugation, we can find one that is equivalent to what we normally use, but it isn’t that way in Japanese. You have to earn to order your words differently and use wht is available to you to get your thoughts heard. You always hear that you can’t translate straight through, and it is extremely true in Japanese.