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Let’s Play With English; Preparing for Level 4; Different Kinds of Sentences in English

Here are some different kinds of English sentences that are useful to know:

“They sold the books.” (What did they sell? books. “Books” is the direct object.)
  1. The Basic Sentence: A declarative sentence simplely says something, Like all sentences, begins with a capital letter, and it ends with a period, A basic pattern for a declarative sentences is: subject + verb + direct object + prepositional phrase. A subject is a noun or a subject pronoun. a verb is an action word or a state of being word. a direct object is a noun or an object pronoun. A prepositional phrase is a phrase that begins with a preposition and end with a noun or pronoun that is the object of the prepositions. subject pronouns: I, you, he, she, it, we, they. object pronouns: me, you, him, her, it, us, them. Basic state of being verbs: is, am, are, was, were, will be, have been has been, had been. Examples of action verbs:: go, eat, sleep, do, run, etc. Examples of prepositions: to, at, on, in, over, under, around, between, through, etc. Definition of a direct object: a word that receives the action of the verb. For example, “I ate the cake.” “Cake received the action of “ate,” so it is the direct object. Example: “He reads a book.” “book” receives the action of “reads,” so it is the direct object. To know the direct object, ask “what?” Definition of a subject: The word that does the action of the verb. At times, you also have an indirect object. An indirect object is the only thing that can come between the verb and the direct object. Use the object pronouns. Example: “He gave me a book.” “He” is the subject. “gave” is the action verb. “Me” is the indirect object. “a book” is the direct object. An indirect object can change into a prepositional phrase: “He gave me a book” could be said “He gave a book to me.” Both sentences mean the same thing. This is the basic order of any sentence. If you have an adjective, put it before the nouns it describes. If you have an adverb, put it after the verb it describes, at the end of the sentence, or before the adjective it describes. Examples: “The pretty girl runs quickly.” The adjective is “pretty,” and the adverb is “quickly.” If you want to talk about time, put it at the end of the sentence. Example: “the pretty girl runs quickly everyday.” Another example: “The pretty girl runs quickly at 9:00 every morning.”
“Do you like gardens?” “Who is in the garden?” “What do they grow?” (three questions)
  1. A Question: Questions take a different word order than sentences. There are basically two kinds of questions, one with a question word and one without. If there is no question word, the question usually begins with a state of being verb. Example: “Is it a pen?” The sentence that answers it: “Yes, it is a pen.” or “No, it isn’t a pen.” or “No, it is a pencil.” The question words are: who, what, when , why, where, how, how much, how many. To make a question, put one of these question words: who what, when, why , where, or how, and next a verb, and then a noun or pronoun. Example: “How are you?” Another example: “Where is it?” Another example: “When is it?” Another kind of example: “When do you go?” “What do you eat?’ “How can I jump?” You put “do” or “can,” and end the question with the main verb. You can conjugate the verb: What are you eating? What did he make? When did you go? If you want to use, “How much” or “How many,” use a count noun after “many” and a non count noun after “much.” Examples: ” How much water do you want?” “How many cakes did you bake?” If the answer is a count noun, you can also use “How many”: How many did you buy? How many do you want? If the answer is a non count noun, use “How much”: How much does it cost” ” How much tea do you want?’
If you practice, then you can get the basketball into the hoop. (conditional sentence)//Photo by Pixabay on Pexels.com
  1. Conditional sentence: A conditional sentence has a condition and a conclusion. It begins with “if,” and the second clause beings with “then.” Although, “then” can be left out at times. Examples: “If I go, then you can go.” “If he bakes a cake, then he eats the whole cake alone.” “If you talk like that, people will laugh.” The concrete part, the conclusion, is second. The condition is first.
Mary said, “Aren’t they pretty!” (reported speech)
  1. Reported Speech: This is when you tell what someone said. There are a couple of ways of doing it. Examples: ” He said that he wanted to go.” “My mother says that I can’t go.” “My friend asked if he could go too.” He said, “I want to go.” (“I want to go” are his actual words.) Sarah said, “Hello, how are you?” (“Hello, how are you?” are her actual words.)
May played basketball better than Sarah. (comparative sentence)///Photo by IMG_1979 on Pexels.com
  1. Comparative Sentence: The key words to compare things are these: more, better, and “than.” You also need to know comparative adjectives. Comparative adjectives have an “-er” on the end of the adjective. Examples of comparative adjectives: prettier, taller, bigger, smaller, greener, etc. You use “more”if the adjective is long. Examples: more beautiful, more interesting, more inviting, etc. “better” is the comparative form of “good.” If you want to say it is bad, then say “worse.” Here are some basic sentences: “Mary is prettier than Sarah.” (# 1 is Mary.) “Jeff is taller than Jim.” (Jeff is #1.) “Jim is shorter than Jeff.” (Jim is #1.) “Coca Cola tastes better than Root Beer.” (Coca Cola is #1.) “The red book is more interesting than the blue book.” (The red book is #1.) “The leaves are greener than the grass.” (The leaves are #1.)
“The fence was in the way, so he jumped over it.” (sentence with a reason)
  1. A Sentence with a Reason: In these sentences, it is best if the reason is second. In English, the explanation is usually second. Example: “He eats pizza because it tastes good.” The reason is “because it tastes good.” “Because it tastes good” is not a complete sentence. “We ate dinner because we were hungry.” “Because we were hungry” is the reason. Don’t use it as a sentence alone when you are writing. Example: “We were hot, so we used the air conditioner.” The reason is “so we used the air conditioner” If you use it as a sentence alone, it is wrong. Always, the reason comes second.
“Romanians say he is the best poet in Romania.” (reported speech and superlative sentence)
  1. Superlative Sentence: This means one thing is better than everything else. You need to learn “–est” “the most,” “the best,” and “the worst.” Examples: “Sam is the tallest.” (No one else is taller than Sam. ) “This class is the best.” “This food is the worst.” “Mary is the prettiest.” These all mean they are #1.”
  2. Parallel Sentence: This sentence has parallel grammar. Example: “I study English, and she studies Math.” This sentence has two clauses that have the same grammar. Their grammar is parallel. Example: “Studying English is studying a good thing.” This sentence begins with a gerund, and “–ing” word, and it also uses a Present Progressive tense verb with an “–ing” word. It is a parallel sentence because of the two “ing” words. Example: “To go to Disney Land is to go to a wonderful place.” The parallel grammar in this sentence is an infinitive , “to go,” and two prepositional phrases: “to Disney Land” and “to a wonderful place.” Example: “I ran into the house, jumped on my bed, and picked up my book.” All three clauses have “subject + verb + prepositional phrase.” These sentences are called writers sentences because they must be thought out.
“They danced across the stage, sang with high pitched voices, and thrilled the people in audience.” (parallel sentence)
  1. Period Sentence: This is also a writer’s sentence. In these sentences, they are introduced by a dependent clause, and the main part of the sentence comes last. You don[‘t know the meaning of the sentence until you get to the end. Example: “His white hair hung loosely about his face, and he walked with a limp, but he was still very healthy.” The point is that he was healthy, and it is introduced by telling about him. Example: “Although the bird killed the other bird, my children continued to take care of the bird and love it.” Again, the sentence is introduced, and the main point of the sentence comes second. The main point is “my children continued to take care of the bird and love it.”If you used “Although the bird killed the other bird” alone, it is an incomplete sentence. It is a dependent clause and introduces the sentence.
“Even though he tried again and again, the cowboy couldn’t catch the cow.” (periodic sentence)

An Exercise:

Directions: label the different kinds of sentences. The answers are at the end.

  1. What do you like? ____________
  2. If you study for the exam, then you will make a good grade. ___________
  3. She is taller than her friend. _____________
  4. I woke up at 9:00 in the morning. _____________
  5. Mary goes to school, and Jack goes to work. ___________
  6. John is the tallest. ____________
  7. He studied hard, so he made good grades._____________
  8. John said that he is hungry. _____________
  9. How much does it cost? ________________
  10. He was tired, so he went home. ______________
  11. Thinking he was at home, he opened the door and went in._____________
  12. If I have to be there by 10:00, then I have to leave my house by 9:00. _____________
  13. Seoul is a huge city. _____________
  14. This is the best television show! _____________
  15. Although I was tired, I studied all night._______________
  16. He said, “She went home.” _____________
  17. Larry is the tallest. _____________
  18. Learning a language is learning something useful. _____________
  19. She wanted to talk to her mother, but was 600 miles away, so she called her mother. ____________
  20. Korean apples are bigger than American apples. __________
“It was the most beautiful ring she had ever seen.” (superlative sentence)

Answers: 1) question 2) conditional sentence 3) comparative sentence 4) declarative sentence 5) parallel sentence 6) superlative sentence 7) sentence with a conclusion 8) reported speech 9) question 10) sentence with a conclusion 11) periodic sentence 12) conditional sentence 13) declarative sentence 14) superlative sentence 15) periodic sentence 16) reported speech 17) superlative sentence 18) parallel sentence 19. periodic sentence 20. comparative sentence

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