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Japanese Language, Lesson 8、日本語

Konnichiwa. O’genki desuka? In the last two lessons, I have been introducing you to some verbs. In this lesson, I will begin teaching you how to use these verbs.  There are several conjugations (forms) of Japanese verbs, and they don’t particularly match English conjugations.  I will begin by reviewing, then present the lesson and explanations, then give you an exercise, and then give you all the answers.  Let’s go! Ikimashiou!

Review:

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. kono kata wa nani o shimasuka? この 方は 何を しますか。

Answer: __________________________________________________________________________________

2.

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2. kono hito wa te to kuchi de nani o shimasuka? この 人は 手と 口で 何を しますか。

Answer: ___________________________________________________________________________________

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3. Kono ona wa kuchi de nani o shimasuka? この 小名は 口で 何にを しますか。

Answer:___________________________________________________________________________________

4. Kono ona wa mimi de nani o shimasuka? この 小名は 耳で ないを しますか。

____________________________________________________________________________________________

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5. kono hitotachi wa nani o shimasuka? この 人たちは 何を しますか。

Answer: ___________________________________________________________________________________

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6. kono otoko wa ashi de nani o shimasuka? この 男は 足で 何を しますか。

Answer: ___________________________________________________________________________________

Lesson:

Verbs/ doushi, and Adverbs of Time/ toki no fukushi どうし と ときの ふくし

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kono kata no namae wa Rieko desu. (This person’s name is Rieko.)

この 方の 名前は 利恵子 です。

Rieko wa mainichi gakkou e ikimasu. (Rieko goes to school everyday.)

理恵子は 前に血 がっこへ 行きます。

Gakkou e Rieko wa Nihongo o benkiyo shimasu. (At school, Rieko studies Japanese.)

がっこえ りえこは 日本語を べんき よします。

Rieko wa sukoshi Nihongo o dekimasu. (Rieko  can do a little Japanese.) (In Japanese, they don’t say “can speak,” but “can do.”)

りえこは すこし にほんごを できます。

Keredomo, Rieko wa takusan Nihongo o dekitai.  (But, Rieko wants to be able to do a lot of Japanese.) (Remember that “can” comes from “to be able to.”)

けれ子も、りえこは たくさん 日本語を できたい。

Takusan Nihongo o dekitai desu kara Rieko wa mainichi benkiyo shinakereba narimasen. (Because she wants to do a lot of Japanese, Rieko must study everyday.)

たくさん 日本語を できたい ですから りえこは まえにち べんきよ しなければ なりません。

America ni Nihongo o benkiyo shimashita. (In America, she studied Japanese.)

あめりかに 日本語を べんきよ しました。

Keredomo, ima Rieko wa Nippon e benkiyo shimasu. (But now, Rieko studies Japanese in Japan.)

けれども、今に りえこは 日本へ べんき よします。

Rieko wa America kara kimasu. (Rieko comes from America.)

理恵子は アメリカ から 来ます。

Rieko wa Eigo to Supeingo o yoku dekimasu. (Rieko speaks English and Spanish well.)

りえこは 英語 と スペイン語 を よくできます。

Rieko wa Nihongo mo yoku dekitai. (Rieko also wants to speak Japanese well.)

理恵子は 日本語も よく できたい。

Rieko wa kaban o arimasu.

りえこは かばんを あります。

Kaban no naka ni wa hon desu.

かばんの なかに は ほんです。

Explanations:

  1.  Here are the adverbs I used:  maenichi (everyday), ima (now), and yoku (well).
  2. “Benkyo” means “study,” the noun.  You can use a noun and add “shimasu” (to do), and make a verbs.  Benkiyo suru = to study, benkikyo shimasu = study, or studies, benkikyo shimashita = studied.
  3. Japanese has simple past tense.  Here are some verbs you have already studied in simple past tense:

desu – deshita                                                  kimasu -kimashita

arimasu – arimashita                                     mochimasu – mochimashita

tabemasu – tabemashita                               tachimasu – tachimashita

hanashimasu – hanashimashita                 hashirimasu – hashirimashita

shimasu – shimashita                                   kagimasu –  kagimashita

arukimasu – arukimashita                          dekimasu – dekimashita

ikimasu -ikimashita                                     yomimasu – yomimashita

nomimasu – nomimashita                          kikimasu – kikimashita

4.  As I said above, they don’t use “speak” when they want to know if you speak a language, but they use “can do.”

5.  Here are some negatives of some verbs you already know:

(The first form is more polite, but you must know the second form to use inside of a sentence or to make other forms of the verb.)

arimasu – arimasen                                                     ikimasu – ikimasen, or ikanai

tabemasu -tabemasen, tabanai                                kimasu – kimasen, kinai

nomimasu – nomimasen, nomanai                         kikimasu – kimasen, kikanai

hanashimasu – hanashimasen, hanasanai            arukimasu – arukimasen, arukanai

shimasu  – shimasen, shinai                                      kagimasu – kagimasen, kaganai

dekimasu – dekimasen, dekinai

For me to learn these, I made flash cards with the verb on the front, and put all the forms I could find on the back, and I memorized them.  However, next, usage is the best way to learn them.  I read out loud and wrote when I studied Japanese. My Japanese teacher used to say to me first, copy what she wrote, then eventually, I would be able to write myself.  She said to go home and write in Japanese 2, but she didn’t say how much. I wrote and wrote and wrote.  There was one other student in the class, and he wrote one sentence. I learned to speak Japanese, and he didn’t.  Writing is a key to speaking. My teacher gave me verb charts with all the different forms, and I chose verbs and made my own sentences.

6.  Here is a reason you want to learn the impolite negative form of the verb:

benkiyo shina kereba narimasen. = must study. This is a double negative.  The impolite form is used first, then you put “kereba” and then you use the polite negative form.

Here are some more examples of using it:  tabena kereba narimasen = I must eat. ikana kereba narimasen = I must go. arukana kereba narimasen = I must walk.  Yes, in Japanese, the subject has been omitted because they omit subjects, and you have to guess what the subject is. In some ways, it is awkward, but it also makes it easier to learn. If you hear “ikana kereba narimasen,” it could mean “I must go,” “You must go,” “He must go,” “She must go,” ” It must go,” “We must go,” or “They must go.”

7.  Here is another reason to learn the impolite negative form:

benkyo shitai = want or wants to study. That “tai” on the end means “want,” and it is very similar to the “nai,” the impolite, negative form.  Just change the “n” for a “t.” Here are some more examples:

Ikanai-=doesn’t, don’t go, doesn’t go/ ikatai = wants, want to go. (Again, you don’t have to say the subject pronoun in Japanese, and it could be any number of pronouns.)

tabenai = doesn’t, don’t eat/ tabetai = wants, want to eat.

8.  I told you when we began studying verbs that you needed to learn the infinitive form, the dictionary form.  If you have, it will come in handy now. I gave you the verb “dekimasu,” “can” or “to be able to.”  If you want to say you can do something, you need this verb and the dictionary form of the verb.  Examples:

iku kotoga dekimasu = can go (This comes from ikimasu (go, goes).

benkiyo suru kotoga dekimasu = can study (This comes from benkiyo shimasu, study, studies).

taberu kotoga dekimasu = can eat (This comes from tabemasu, eat, eats).

hanasu kotoga dekimasu = can speak (This comes from hanashimasu, speak, speaks). I told you they usually use “dekimasu” (to do) to talk about whether or not they speak a language, but if you want to use “hanasu kotoga dekimasu,” they will understand.

9. If you remember, I told you that “soshite” is “and” at the beginning of the sentence.  “keredomo” is “but,” and it must also be used at the beginning of a sentence.

10.  We also have “desu kara” and “kara kimasu.”  “Desu kara” means “because.  If you want to say “because” you must begin your sentence with the dependent clause, and end that clause with “desu kara,”  then you have to put your main clause.  It is the opposite of English.  In English, we begin our sentence with the main clause, then we put “because,” and then the dependent clause.  Here are some examples:

I like flowers because they smell good. = hana wa yoku kagu desu kara hana o suki desu.  (”suki desu” means ”like.”) (”kagu” is the infinitive form (the dictionary form) of kagimasu, smell).

I eat food because I like food. = tabemono o suki desu kara tabemono o tabemasu.

The other use of “kara” means “from.”  “I come from America.” = America kara kimasu. (They don’t say “I am from American,” but “I come from America.”) “He comes from Japan.”= Ano kata wa Nippon kara kimasu. (Nippon is Japan, and Nihongo is Japanese.)

Exercises:

  1.  Anata wa doko kara kimasuka? あなたは どこ から きますか。

Answer: __________________________________________________________________________________

2.  Mae nichi Nihongo o benkiyo shimasuka? 前に血 日本語を べんきよしますか。

Answer: ___________________________________________________________________________________

3. America ni benkiyo shimashitaka? あめりかに べんきよ しましたか。

Answer: __________________________________________________________________________________

4.  tabemono o tabemashita? たべものを たべましたか。

____________________________________________________________________________________________

5.  Mizu o nomimashitaka? 水を 飲みましたか。

____________________________________________________________________________________________

6.  Nihongo o benkiyo shina kereba narimasenka? 日本語を べんきよ しな ければ なりませんか。

Answer: __________________________________________________________________________________

7.  Nihongo o benkiyo shitai desuka? 日本語を べんきよ したい でうか。

Answer:___________________________________________________________________________________

8. Eigo o dekimasuka? 英語を できますか。

Answer: __________________________________________________________________________________

9. Supeingo o hanasu kotoga dekimasuka? スペイン語を はなす ことが できますか。

Answer:__________________________________________________________________________________

10.  Maenichi, gakkou e ikimasuka? 前に血 がっこへ 行きますか。

Answer:___________________________________________________________________________________

11. Anata no namae wa nan desuka? あなたの 名前は 何 ですか。

Answer: ___________________________________________________________________________________

12.  Tomodachi to arukatai desuka? 友達と あるかたい ですか。

Answer: ___________________________________________________________________________________

13.  Nihongo ga dekimasuka? 日本語が できますか。

Answer: _________________________________________________________________________________

14.  Nihongo no jibiki o arimasuka? 日本語の 字引を ありますか。

Answer: _________________________________________________________________________________

15. Mae nichi, Nihongo o benkiyo shimasuka? 前に血、日本語を べんきよ しますか。

Answer: ________________________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________________________________

Answers:

Review Answers:

  1. Sono hito wa yomimasu./ Sono hito wa hon o mimasu. その人は よみます。その人は本を みます。
  2. Sono hito wa te to kuchi de nomimasu. その人は 手と 口でで 野水ます
  3. Sono ona wa kuchi de hanashimasu. その 小名は 口で なします。
  4. Sono ona wa mimi de kikimasu. その 小名は 耳で 聞きます。
  5. Sono hitotachi wa arukimasu. その 人たちは 歩きます。
  6. Sono otoko wa ashi de hasirimasu. その 男は 足で 走ります

Lesson Answers:

  1. Watashi wa America kara kimasu. (Put your country where I put “America.”)私は アメリカ から 来ます
  2. Hai, mae nichi, Nihongo o benkiyo shimasu./ Iie, mae nichi, Nihongo o benkiyo shimasen. はい、前に血 日本語を 弁寄与 します。
  3. Hai, America ni benkiyo shimashita./ Iie, America ni benkiyo shimasen deshita. はい、アメリカに 弁寄与しました。いいえ、アメリカに 弁寄与 しません でした。
  4. Hai, tabemono o tabemashita./ Iie, tabemono o tabemasen deshita. はい、食べ物を 食べました。いいえ、食べ物を 食べません でした。
  5. Hai, mizu o nomimashita./ Iie, mizu o nomimasen deshita. はい、水を 飲みました。いいえ、水を 飲みません でした。
  6. Hai, Nihongo o benkiyo shina kereba narimasen./ Iie, watashi wa Nihongo o benkiyo shitai desu. はい、日本語を べんきょ しな ければ なりません。いいえ、私は 日本語を 弁寄与 したい です。
  7. Hai, Nihongo o benkiyo shitai. はい、日本語を 弁寄与 したい です。
  8. Hai, Eigo o dekimasu./ Iie, Eigo o dekimasen. はい、英語を できます。いいえ、英語を できません。
  9. Hai, watashi wa Supeingo o hanasu koto ga dekimasu./ Iie, watashi wa Supeneingo o hansu koto ga dekimasen. はい、私はスペイン語を はなす どとが できます。
  10. Hai, maenichi, gakkou e ikimasu./ Iie, maenichi gakkou e ikimasen. はい、前に血、学校へ 行きます。いいえ、前に血、学校へ いきません。
  11. Watashi no namae wa Ronda desu. (Put your name where “Ronda” is.) 私の 名前は ロンダ desu.
  12.  Hai, tomodachi to arukatai./ Iie tomodachi to arukimasen. はい、友達とあるかい。いいえ友達と 歩きません。
  13. Hai, Nihongo ga dekimasu./ Hai, Nihongo ga sukoshi dekimasu./ Iie, Nihongo ga dekimasen. (“sukoshi” means “a little bit.”)はい、日本語が できます。はい、日本語が 少しできます。いいえ、日本語が できません。
  14. Hai, Nihongo no jibiki o arimasu./ Iie, Nihongo no jibiki o arimasen. はい、日本語の じびきを あります。
  15. Hai, maenichi Nihongo o benkiyo shimasu./ Iie maenichi Nihongo o benkiyo shimasen. はい、前に血、日本語を 弁寄与 します。いいえ、前に血 日本語を べんきよしません。

 

 

 

 

 

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