We don’t have these kind of verbs in English. They are adjectives that become verbs, and when they become a verb, the mean “is, am, or are” the adjective. You saw a little of this when I explained the 하다 verb, but there are more verbs that are not 하다 verbs that do the same thing.
Examples of these adjective style verbs:
슬픈 – sad
슬퍼요 – is sad
슬프다 – the harder sounding form or book form of “is sad”
예쁜 – pretty
예뻐요 – is pretty, am pretty, are pretty
예쁘다 – the harder sounding form or book form of “is pretty”
아름다운 – beautiful
아름다워요 – is beautiful, are beautiful, am beautiful
아름답다 – the harder sounding form or book form of “is beautiful”
피곤한 – tired
피곤해요 – is tired, are tired, am tired
피곤하다 – the harder sounding form or book form of “is tired”
목 마른 -thirsty
먹 말라요 – am thirsty, are thirsty, is thirsty
먹 마르다 – the harder sounding form or book form
먹 마릅니다 – the more formal form
배 고픈 – hungry
배 고파요 – is hungry, are hungry, am hungry
배 고프다 – the harder sounding form or book form of “is hungry”
아픈 – painful
아파요 – It is painful. It hurts. (They will not include the pronoun.)
아프다 – the harder sounding form or book form of “it hurts.”
켜요 – is big, are big, am big
큽니다 – the book form or the harder form of “is big”
작은 – small, little
작아요 – is little, is small, am little, am small, are little, are small
조금 – a little bit (a noun)
좋은 – good (adjective)
좋아요 – is good, are good, am good
좋다 – harder sounding, book form of “is good”
착함 – good (noun)
나쁜 – bad (adjective)
나빠요 – is bad, are bad, am bad
나쁘다 – harder sounding or book form of “is bad”
Further Considerations of Adjective Style Verbs:
If you use the “요” form of these verbs without the pronoun, you still have a complete sentence in one word. Example:
1) I was going to school one day, and there were some Korean girls in front of me. When they got to the school, the cherry blossom trees were blooming everywhere, and it was beautiful! One of the girls said, “와! 예뻐요!” She meant to say, “Wow! It is beautiful!”
2) If you are hungry, you can simply say, “배 고파요” without using “I,” and people will understand that you are hungry. If you want to ask if someone is hungry, simple say, “배 고파요?” leaving the “you” out, but they will know you are asking if they are hungry.
3) If you are tired, simply say, “피곤해요,” and people will understand that you are tired. Again, if you want to know if someone is tired, simple say, “피곤해요?” and they will understand that you just said, “Are you tired?” However, you left the “you” out. If you want to tell someone that someone else is tired, simply say, “피곤해요,” and they will understand from context because they will see that the other person is tired too. You left the “he” or “she” out, but they know from context.
4) If you want to ask if someone is worried, just ask, “걱정해요?” leaving “you” out, but they will understand. If you want to tell them you are worried, simply say, “걱정해요.” They will understand from context that you are worried.
5. 먹 (mok) actually means “throat, and when you say “먹 마르다,” you are actually saying, “My throat is dry,” but you are leaving out “my,” and you could ask the question, “먹 말라요?” –“Are you thirsty?” 마르다 means “it is dry.” 마른 is the adjective form of “dry,”
6. 한국 말을 할 수 있어요? (hangook mal hal soo ees-so-yo?) – Do you speak Korean? (However, litterally, the “you” is not there, and it asks if you “can do” Korean.) 조금 (jokum) – a little bit. Just get ready for a whole different way of thinking about everything.
6. 큰 쓰레기 백을 주세요. (kun sooregee bag ul joose-yo). – Please give me a big trash bag. …I included this for you because if you are coming to Korea, this is one of the first things you will have to learn to say. You can’t just go to the store and pick trash bags up off the shelf. I had to learn to say this phrase to get trash bags when I first came to Korea. You have to go to the local stores and ask the clerk for a trash bag, not to EMart, but whatever store is closest to your house. They are more expensive than American trash bags, and you can only use the trash bags from your area. The reason is because when you pay for the bags, you are paying for the trash service. However, I have learned that EMart shopping bags can be substituted for the trash bags, but they aren’t big. If you have a lot of trash, you will need the big bags, so this is how to ask for one.
“Bag” in Korean is “bag” or “봉투” (punctu) -envelope. However, if you are talking about your purse, your back pack, or your luggage, you can say “bag” because Koreans use the word universally, but don’t say 봉투. Say 가방 (kabang).