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Korean Lesson 6 : A Conversation Using 이다 and 있다

Conversation:

Person A: 나의 펜이 어디서 있어요? (na ooee pen ee ohdeeso eesoh-yo?) Where is my pen?
Person B: 펜이 책위에 있어요. ( pen ee check ooee-e eesoh-yo.) The pen is on the book.
Person A: 실수가 있어요. 나의 책위에 꽃이 있어요. (sheelsoo eesoh-yo. na ooee check ooee-e kot ee eesoh-yo. ) – There is a mistake. (Or, You made a mistake.) There is a flower on my book.
Person B: 미안합니다. 걱정 마세요. 펜이 여기서 있어요. 펜이 책아레에 있어요. (meean habneeda. kokjong maseyo. pen ee yogi eesoh-yo. pen ee check ahre-e eesoh-yo.) I am sorry. Don’t worry. Here is the pen. The pen is under the book. (The people say, “걱정 마세요,” but a Korean teacher woud correct them and tell them to say, “걱정 하지마세요.” If you watch TV, though, you will hear them saying, “걱정 마세요.”)
Person A: 괜찮아요. 이것은 나의 펜이예요. (koo-enchanah-yo. eegos un na ooee pen eeyeyo.) – Its okay. This is my pen.
Person B: 친구가 어디서 있어요? (cheengoo ga ohdeeso eesoh-yo?) –
Where is your friend?
Person A: 나의 친구가 여기서 없어요. 나의 친구가 집에 있어요. (na ooee cheengoo nun yogeeso obso-yo. na ooee cheengoo nun cheeb e eesoh-yo.) – My friend is not here. My friend is at home.
Person B: 그리고, 이 펜이 너의 펜 아니예요. 이 펜이 나의 펜이에요. (kooreego, ee pen ee no ooee pen ahnee-yo. ee pen ee na ooee pen eeye-yo.) – And, this pen is not your pen. This pen is my pen.
Person A: 마안합니다. 실수예요. 이 펜을 사용할 수 있어요? (meean habneeda. sheelsoo eeye-yo. ee pen ul sayong hal soo eesoh-yo?) – I am sorry. I made a mistake. Can I use this pen?
Person B: 괜찮아요. 걱정하지 마세요. 나의 펜을 사용할 수 있어요. (koo-enchanna-yo. kokjong hajimaseyo. na ooee pen ul sayong halsoo eesoh-yo.) – It’s okay. Don’t worry. You can use my pen.


Explanations:
1) Sometimes, the pronouns are left out. Most often, it is the pronoun for “you” that is left out, but others are left out too. It is like what we call the understood “you” in English, but they do that with more than just “you.”
examples:
A. 미안합니다 (meeahn habneeda) – I am sorry or excuse me. There are no pronouns used in 미안합니다.
B. 실수 있어요. (sheelsoo eesoh-yo) – Literally this is, “There is a mistake,” but it can be used for “I made a mistake.”
C. 실수 이예요. (sheelsoo eeye-yo) – Literally, it means “It is a mistake,” but there is no “it” in 실구 이예요. 시수- mistake, 이예요 – is.
D. 친구는 어디서 있어요? (cheengoo nun ohdee eesoh-yo?) – Where is your friend. However, literally, the sentence says, “Where is friend?” They left “your” out. You or your is left out more often than any other pronoun.
E. 이 펜이 너의 펜 아니예요. (ee pen ee no ooee pen ahn-nee-yo.) – This pen is not your pen. 너의 (no ooee) – your, but this is not a pen you want to use often. 너 or 너의 (no or no ooee) – you or your. This “you or your” is impolite, talking down to the other person, or perhaps means that you are very cose to the other person if you use it.
F. 걱장하지 마세요. (kokjong maseyo). – Don’t worry. In English, this has an understood “you.” We know that the person is talking to “you,” but they don’t say “you.” It is the same with 걱정하지 마세요. You can find “you” in 걱정 마세요 at all.
2. Negatives:
A. 있어요 (eesoh-yo) means the thing or the person is there, and 없어요 (obsoh-yo) means the thing or the person is not there.
The more formal form: The negative of 있습니다 (eesubneeda) is 없습니다 (obsubneeda).
The form you read on the page, 있다 (eetda) becomes 없다 (obtda).
B. 이다 (eesoh-yo) means the thing exists. 아니다 (ahnda) means the thing doesn’t exist.
입니다 (eesubneeda), the formal form’s negative counterpart is 지 않습니다 (ahn subneeda).
이예요 (eeyeyo) becomes 안돼요 (ahnde-yo).
3. Can
“Can” in Korean has another use of the “있어요.” In English, we never think about it, but “can” actually comes from the verb “to be able to do.” “Can” is just our short way of expressing all that. “I can” means “I am able to do it.” If you want to say someone is “able to do” something in Korean, there is a construction. The most important one to learn is 할 수 있다 (hal soo eetda) which means “can do.” In this conversation, it is part of “can use.” “Use” in Korean is 사용 하다 (sayong hada). To change it so you can say “can use,” you have to add “수” (soo) and change “하다” (hada) to “있어요” (eesoh-yo). Yes, “하다” is another “be” verb, and it means even more than “be.” We aren’t finished with “be” vebs yet. I will explain “하다” next, but before that, I will send out a lesson for you to fill in the blanks and answer questions with what you have learned so far to give you practice and help you know how much you have learned and what you still need to study.

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